Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

Power Efficiency Guide

The Power Efficiency Guide is a step-by-step guide showing the users how to create their own Home Power Plant. The E-book was created just to explain and help people out of the problem they face because of the lack of electricity. The guide was made to help the users use about 90% of the tools they use regularly in their various houses for the creation of a power generator, which will beneficial to them and their family. The device uses the endless power principle used to make the electric cars constantly charge themselves from the wheels when not being accelerated. It is a unique concept that can be used in every home. It was created in such a way that it would be a quick fix for the users' electricity problem. In other words, when the users purchase it during the day, the users will be able to make use of it before night falls. The process is so easy that even a little child can fix it up. The guide is such that comes at a cheap price and would help in the reduction of the amount the users might have to pay for regular electricity bill due to the number of appliances used at home. Read more here...

Power Efficiency Guide Summary


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12 The Value Of Energy Management

Business, industry and government organizations have all been under tremendous economic and environmental pressures in the last few years. Being economically competitive in the global marketplace and meeting increasing environmental standards to reduce air and water pollution have been the major driving factors in most of the recent operational cost and capital cost investment decisions for all organizations. Energy management has been an important tool to help organizations meet these critical objectives for their short term survival and long-term success. Energy management helps improve environmental quality. For example, the primary culprit in global warming is carbon dioxide, CO2. Equation 1.1, a balanced chemistry equation involving the combustion of methane (natural gas is mostly methane), shows that 2.75 pounds of carbon dioxide is produced for every pound of methane combusted. Thus, energy management, by reducing the combustion of methane can dramatically reduce the amount of...

1513Commercial Energy Consumption and Intensity by Principal Building Activity 1995

Commercial buildings were distributed unevenly across the categories of most major building characteristics. For example, in 1995, 63 of buildings and 67.1 of floor space were found in four building types office, mercantile and service, education, and warehouse. Total energy consumption also varied by building type. Three building types health care, food service, and food sales had higher energy intensity than the average of 90.5 thousand Btu per square foot for all commercial buildings. Figures 1.13 and 1.14 show the 13 principal building types and their total consumption and intensity.

201 The Energy Policy Act Of 1992

Energy Efficiency Provisions Directs the Dept. of Energy to undertake research and development on a wide range of energy technologies, including energy efficiency technologies, natural gas end-use products, renewable energy resources, heating and cooling products, and electric vehicles.

238 Energy Policy

Efforts were underway for several years in the U.S. to develop a comprehensive energy program that would integrate the activities of the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency, and other federal agencies, with contributions by the private sector. These initiatives culminated in the passage by Congress of the legislation entitled Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486). It provided energy efficiency goals and standards, promoted alternative fuels, prescribed new R & D on electric vehicles, restructured the production of electricity, addressed radioactive waste disposal, established a uranium enrichment corporation, and simplified nuclear plant licensing. In essence, the law affirms the nation's commitment to preserve and extend the nuclear option as part of a broad energy mix. From the more than 350 pages of the Act, we can highlight the features that are related primarily to nuclear energy, with the understanding that...

235 International Atomic Energy Agency

In the same speech, President Eisenhower proposed an international atomic organization. In response, the United Nations established the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), through a statute ratified by the necessary number of countries in 1957. Over 130 nations support and participate in its programs, which are administered from its headquarters in Vienna. The objective of the IAEA is to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world. Its main functions are

Energy Star Computers Program

The EPA's Energy Star Computers Program is a voluntary, market-based partnership with computer manufacturers to promote energy-efficient personal computers in an effort to reduce the air pollution caused by the generation of electricity. Office equipment is the fastest growing electrical load in the commercial sector. Computer systems alone account for approximately 5 of the commercial electricity consumption a figure which could reach 10 by the year 2000. Dramatic, cost-effective, efficiency improvements are available for both hardware power consumption and the control of operation hours, offering up to 90 energy savings for many computer applications. To date eight computer manufacturers Apple, IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Digital, Compaq, NCR, Smith Corona, and Zenith Data Systems have signed partnership agreements with the EPA to participate in the program. By the year 2000, the EPA's Energy Star Computers Program and other campaigns to promote energy-efficient computer equipment will...

Energy Efficient Lighting

Buildings need new ways to reduce energy costs while maintaining quality lighting for different facilities. A large portion of facility utility costs are devoted to lighting. Recent light innovations and energy conservation programs are helping to facilitate this task. Technological advances in lamps, ballasts, and lighting controls, such as improved metal halide systems with pulse start ballasts are transforming this sector of energy saving. More efficient buildings are the goal of energy conservation organizations, such as the Energy Efficient Lighting Association (EELA). It specializes in effective retrofitting and the latest lighting technology. The EELA was launched in 1997 and is based in Princeton Junction, NJ. EELA sponsors conferences and is supported by lighting service companies. EELA helps facilities managers achieve energy-saving goals with an array of lighting products. By funding lighting retrofits, energy services companies (ESCOs) also help to achieve energy...

146 Saving Energy Dollars In Materials Handling And Storage

The earlier parts of this chapter have dealt with various topics in energy-efficient maintenance of equipment and facilities. Two other topics of interest not covered elsewhere in this handbook are energy management in materials handling and new devices for energy cost savings. This section covers the first of those topics. 4. How can the energy management program be monitored These questions are discussed in Sections 14.6.1 to 14.6.4.

World Primary Energy Consumption

As with primary energy consumption, the three largest consumers of world energy in 2001 were the United States, Russia, and China. These countries consumed approximately 97, 28, and 40 quadrillion Btu, respectively, in 2001, accounting for about 41 of the world's total energy consumed. When Japan and Germany are included, the five largest consumers of primary energy in 2001 accounted for nearly 50 of the world's total. The next five leading consumers were India, Canada, France, the United Kingdom, and Brazil, which together accounted for an additional 13.5 of world energy consumption 23 .

Energy Management Devices

Energy management devices are used to regulate the on and off times of selected loads, such as fans, heaters, and motors. They are used in a building in order to reduce electrical demand (kilowatts) and to regulate energy consumption (kilowatt hours). Energy management devices can be electromechanical, electronic, or computer based. The operation of one or more loads is interrupted by the energy management system based on control algorithms and building-operating parameters, such as temperatures, air flow, or occupancy. The savings in electrical energy use and cost range from 0 to 50 or more.

World Energy Consumption of

Oil has been the world's dominant source of primary energy for several decades, and it is expected to remain in that position for EIA's forecast period to 2020, as shown in Figure 2-22 24 . Although oil is projected to be the dominant fuel source, its share of the world energy consumption remains relatively unchanged for the 20-year period, as illustrated in Figure 2-23 24 . This is predicted to occur because many countries are expected to switch from oil to natural gas and other fuels, especially for electricity generation.

World Energy Consumption of Natural

Natural gas is projected to be the fastest growing source of energy consumption for the EIA's forecast period and is predicted to double over 20 years. As shown in Figures 2-22 and 2-23, natural gas consumption is predicted to surpass the use of coal in both total energy (i.e., on a Btu basis) and market share, respectively. Much of the demand for natural gas consumption throughout the world is due to rising demand for natural gas to fuel new gas turbine power plants along with economic advantages over fuels such as coal in the power generation and industrial markets (due to the lower capital and maintenance costs), environmental concerns, fuel diversification and energy security issues, market deregulation, and overall economic growth 24 .

World Energy Consumption of Renewable Energy

Renewable energy use is projected to increase by 53 over the forecast period however, its share of total energy consumption is expected to remain relatively unchanged at 8 to 9 24 . Renewable energy consumption is expected to be driven by new, large-scale hydroelectric projects, particularly in China, India, Malaysia, and other developing Asian countries, but even these projects have had their share of bad publicity. Projects in China and Malaysia have continued amidst criticism of their environmental impacts and concerns about the welfare of people being relocated to accommodate the projects 24 similarly, a project under development in Iceland has been criticized for its environmental impact 29 .

911 Characteristics of Building Energy Consumption

Tive shape of the monthly fuel consumption profile and can often learn quite a bit about the facility just from inspection of this data. For example, the monthly energy consumption is inversely proportional to the average monthly temperature. The lower the average monthly temperature, the more natural gas appears to be consumed. Figure 9.1 also indicates that there is a period during the summer months when it appears no heating should be required, yet the facility continues to consume some energy. For natural gas, this is most likely that which is consumed for the heating of domestic hot water, but it could also be due to other sources, such as a gas range in a kitchen. This lower threshold of monthly energy consumption is often referred to as the base, and is characterized by the fact that its magnitude is independent of outdoor weather trends. The monthly fuel consumption which exceeds the base is often referred to as the variable consumption, and is characterized by the fact that...

World Energy Consumption of Coal

Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, only a slight drop in its share of total energy consumption is projected for the forecast period 24 . Coal use is expected to decline in Europe and the States of the FSU as a result of growing use of natural gas in western Europe, increased use of nuclear power in France, and the economic collapse of eastern Europe and the FSU. Increases, however, are expected in the United States, Japan, and developing Asia. Figure 2-24 shows the projected coal consumption by region for the forecast period 24 . In fact, Overall, world coal consumption is projected to increase by approximately 2 billion short tons to a level of 6.8 billion short tons in 2020. This increase will be primarily observed in developing Asia, where an increase of 1.8 billion short tons is projected. Together, China and India are projected to account for 29 of the total increase in energy consumption worldwide and 83 of the projected...

Step 3 System Performance and Energy Usage

Furthermore, the input data required to determine a chiller energy performance curve includes water temperatures in and out of the chillers, flow rates through the chillers, and part-load chiller energy consumption. Some other important factors relating to actual performance include entering condenser water temperature, condenser water flow rate (assuming a water-cooled system), and chiller system operating settings. In the existing systems, some of these factors, such as condenser water flow and chilled water supply temperature, may be fixed or may be varied where load and operational parameters are based on actual conditions. As part of a proposed technology application, many of these factors may be changed due to the use of different equipment and or implementation of new operational optimizing strategies. chilled water use and condenser water temperatures, a basic spreadsheet format can be used to distribute actual equipment energy usage requirements under varying loads for...

Energy Management Trends

By the mid-1980s there was no shortage of oil, and the absence of a national energy policy resulted in a decline in the demand for energy management systems. The slow but continuing growth of these systems led to an awareness of the many benefits of computerized control. Real energy cost reductions were noticed as well as other benefits of better control. These benefits include longer equipment life, more effective comfort levels and expanded building information. These features go beyond energy management and can be extremely desirable in rented properties. Tenants may begin looking for another office space if space comfort problems are not quickly solved. higher energy costs and potential energy crises, growth in the use of Demand Side Management, lower cost systems and the cost-effective replacement of conventional controls,

121 Energy Management Systems

Energy management is the control of energy consuming devices for the purpose of minimizing energy demand and consumption. Manually toggling on and off devices based upon need is a rudimentary form of energy management. The advent of mechanical devices such as time clocks for automatic toggling and bimetallic strip thermostats to control the output of heating and cooling devices along with pneumatic and electrical transmission systems provided means for developing early energy management systems in the form of automatic temperature controls. The advent of solid state electronic control devices and the increasing power of the microprocessor based personal computer have led to dramatic advances in energy management and what today is termed the energy management control

Energy Management and Networks

Networked control systems started during the energy crises of the 1970s, when the rising prices of imported oil triggered severe restrictions on energy use and prompted more efficient energy management and control. This resulted in the development of energy management systems (EMS) for tightly monitoring energy usage. These systems grew over the years in both sophistication and scope. One offshoot appeared in the 1980s called building automation systems (BAS). These systems added historical data, trend logging and fire and security functions to traditional energy management functions. These applications focus a return on investment based on utility savings.

261 Introduction To Commissioning For Energy Management

Commissioning an existing building has been shown to be a key energy management activity over the last decade, often resulting in energy savings of 10 , 20 or sometimes 30 without significant capital investment. Commissioning is more often applied to new buildings today than to existing buildings, but the energy manager will have more opportunities to apply the process to an existing building as part of the overall energy management program. Hence, this chapter emphasizes commissioning applied to existing buildings, but also provides some commissioning guidance for the energy manager who is involved in a construction project. Commissioning an existing building provides several benefits in addition to being an extremely effective energy management strategy. It typically provides an energy payback of one to three years. In addition, building comfort is improved, systems operate better and maintenance cost is reduced. Commissioning measures typically require no capital investment, though...

Role of Coal in the United States 2001 Energy Policy

In May 2001, the National Energy Policy Development (NEPD) Group, chaired by Vice President Dick Cheney, unveiled a National Energy Policy for President George W. Bush. This report, titled Reliable, Affordable, and Environmentally Sound Energy for America's Future, is the first detailed energy policy that the United States has developed since President Jimmy Carter's administration. President Bush directed the NEPD Group to develop a national energy policy designed to help bring together business, government, local communities and citizens to promote dependable, affordable and environmentally sound energy for the future'' 31 . In the report's cover letter to President Bush, Vice President Cheney states that the report envisions a comprehensive long-term strategy that uses leading edge technology to produce an integrated energy, environmental and economic policy. To achieve a 21st century quality of life enhanced by reliable energy and a clean environment we must modernize...

1661 Energy Policy Act of 1992

By passing the Energy Policy Act of 1992, Congress encouraged even greater wholesale competition by reducing the market barriers for independent generators interested in selling electrical power. This act permits wholesale customers to have a choice of generators and obliges utilities to wheel power across their transmission lines at the same cost that they would charge to all others, including themselves. For effective implementation of the act, the utilities are required to break up the generation, transmission, and distribution businesses in separate companies. One will own the generating plants and the other will own the wires. In the past, electricity has been sold as a delivered product. The new restructuring merely unbundles the product price and the delivery charge, with the wires owned and operated separately as common carriers obligated to charge the same rate to all customers.

13 The Energy Management Profession

Energy management skills are important to people in many organizations, and certainly to people who For some of these people, energy management will be their primary duty, and they will need to acquire in-depth skills in energy analysis as well as knowledge about existing and new energy using equipment and technologies. For others such as maintenance managers energy management skills are simply one more area to cover in an already full plate of duties and expectations. The authors are writing this Energy Management Handbook for both of these groups of readers and users. Twenty years ago, few university faculty members would have stated their primary interest was energy management, yet today there are numerous faculty who prominently list energy management as their principal specialty. In 2003, there were 26 universities throughout the country listed by DOE as Industrial Assessment Centers or Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers. Other Universities offer coursework and or do research...

Process Energy Efficiency

Reducing the energy requirement for pumping by using larger diameter pipes or cutting down frictional losses Reducing the energy use in buildings through more efficient heating, cooling, ventilation, and lighting systems Saving energy by using more efficient equipment. Both electric motors and refrigeration systems can be improved through modernization and optimized control technology. for pumps and fans to reduce energy consumption Reducing energy use through proper maintenance and sizing of motors

12b100 Energy Management Functions

12.B10.7 Temperature Control Building target temperatures for night time, weekend and holiday hours, as well as parameters and limits on normal occupied operation shall be user selectable. The system will strive to maintain these setpoint temperatures in consideration of other energy management functions such as demand shedding, duty cycling, optimum start stop, etc. Temperature setpoint parameters for on off points shall be separate temperatures for heating and cooling (if applicable) with Dead Band. Temperature setpoints for analog control points shall include minimum output position (in ), heating full, heating start, cooling start and cooling full.

Energy Policy

Acme Manufacturing Company Policy and Procedures Manual Subject Energy Management Program The Energy Manager may appoint and Energy Committee to be comprised of representatives from various departments. Members will serve for a specified period of time. The purpose of the Energy Committee is to advise the Energy Manager on the operation of the Energy Management Program, and to provide assistance on specific tasks when needed. Coordinators shall be responsible for maintaining an ongoing awareness of energy consumption and expenditures in their assigned areas. They shall recommend and implement energy conservation projects and energy management practices. The energy Coordinator shall keep the Energy Office advised of all efforts to increase energy efficiency in their areas. A summary of energy cost savings shall be submitted each quarter to the Energy Office.

Energy Management

(The material in this section is repeated verbatim from the first and second editions of this handbook. Mr. Roger Sant who was then director of the Energy Productivity Center of the Carnegie-Mellon Institute of Research in Arlington, VA, wrote this section for the first edition. It was unchanged for the second edition. Now, the fourth edition is being printed. The principles developed in this section are still sound. Some of the number quoted may now be a little old but the principles are still sound. Amazing, but what was right 18 years ago for energy management is still right today. The game has changed, the playing field has moved but the principles stay the same). Those who have taken advantage of these opportunities have done so because of the clear intent and commitment of the top executive. Once that commitment is understood, managers at all levels of the organization can and do respond seriously to the opportunities at hand. Without that leadership, the best designed energy...

Totalenergy Systems

Cez Mez Fez

Stirling engines appear to be well suited for use in total energy systems as prime movers, heat pumps, or refrigerating engines. The particular characteristics of the Stirling engine which are advantageous in total energy applications arc, primarily, the multifuel capability, quiet operation, minimal exhaust emissions, excellent part-load efficiency, and good starting, control, and torque characteristics. Walker (1967) appears to have been the lirst to consider Stirling engines for total-energy systems in a survey carried out for the Institute of Gas Technology. loiter Jaspers and du Pre (1973) assessed the prospects of the Stirling engine in total energy systems to be highly favourable. Lehrfeld (1977a) analysed, very comprehensively, the use of Philips Stirling engines in total energy systems in a variety of applications, commercial and hospital buildings, residential apartment buildings, and offices. This study was summarized (Lehrfeld (1977b) and further referred to in a survey of...

Foreword to the Sixth Edition

Since its first edition was published more than two decades ago, Energy Management Handbook has remained the leading reference of choice used by thousands of energy management professionals for one fundamental reason. With this new edition, Dr. Turner and Mr. Doty continue to bring readers both the cutting-edge developments they need to know about, as well as the broad scope of practical information they must have to accomplish real and significant energy cost reduction goals. No other single publication has been as influential in defining and guiding the energy management profession. This new sixth edition builds upon and is no less essential than its predecessors. Comprehensive in scope, it provides today's energy managers with the tools they will require to meet the challenges of a new era of predicted rising energy costs and supply uncertainties ongoing developments which seem certain to impact virtually every aspect of the cost of doing business in the decades ahead. The new...

23 Organizational Structure

The organizational chart for energy management shown in Figure 2-1 is generic. It must be adapted to fit into an existing structure for each organization. For example, the presidential block may be the general manager, and VP blocks may be division managers, but the fundamental principles are the same. The main feature of the chart is the location of the energy manager. This position should be high enough in the organizational structure to have access to key players in management, and to have a knowledge of current events within the company. For example, the timing for presenting energy projects can be critical. Funding availability and other management priorities should be known and understood. The organizational level of the energy manager is also indicative of the support management is willing to give to the position. One very important part of an energy management program is to have top management support. More important, however, is the selection of the energy manager, who can...

28 Strategic Planning

Developing an objective, strategies, programs, and action items constitutes strategic planning for the energy management program. It is the last but perhaps the most important step in the process of developing the program, and unfortunately is where many stop. The very name Strategic Planning has an ominous sound for those who are more technically inclined. However, by using a simplified approach and involving the energy management team in the process, a plan can be developed using a flow chart that will define the program for the next five years. Appendix C contains flow charts depicting a strategic plan developed in a workshop conducted by the author by a large defense organization. It is a model plan in that it deals not only with the technical aspects of energy management but also the funding, communications, education, and behavior modification.

52 Analysis Of Boilers And Fired Systems

5.2.1 Boiler Energy Consumption Boiler and other fired systems, such as furnaces and ovens, combust fuel with air for the purpose of releasing the chemical heat energy. The purpose of the heat energy may be to raise the temperature of an industrial product as part of a manufacturing process, it may be to generate high-temperature high-pressure steam in order to power a turbine, or it may simply be to heat a space so the occupants will be comfortable. The energy consumption of boilers, furnaces, and other fire systems can be determined simply as a function of load and efficiency as expressed in the equation Energy consumption As such, the opportunities for reducing the energy consumption or energy cost of a boiler or fired system can be put into a few categories. In order to reduce boiler energy consumption, one can either reduce the load, increase the operating efficiency, reduce the unit fuel energy cost, or combinations thereof. load varies as a function of the process being...

1223 New Construction EMCS

If the exampled building were under construction as a new building, the developer would be remiss not to consider a DDC EMCS as part of the original design. In addition to all of the benefits described above, the all encompassing system would provide added benefit in the form of PI control of heating and cooling valves and dampers. The design engineer also would be remiss not to consider improvements in the mechanical design that along with DDC control could significantly improve the energy efficiency of the building.

268 For Additional Information

Two major sources of information on commissioning existing buildings are the Continuous Commissioning Guidebook Maximizing Building Energy Efficiency and Comfort (Liu, M., Claridge, D.E. and Turner, W.D., Federal Energy Management Program, U.S. Dept. of Energy, 144 pp., 2002) and A Practical Guide for Commissioning Existing Buildings (Haasl, T. and Sharp, T., Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. and Oak Ridge National Laboratory for U.S. DOE, ORNL TM-1999 34, 69 pp. + App., 1999). Much of this chapter has been abridged and adapted from the CC Guidebook. Turner, W.D., Claridge, D.E., Deng, S. and Wei, G., The Use of Continuous CommissioningSM As An Energy Conservation Measure (ECM) for Energy Efficiency Retrofits, Proc. of 11th National Conference on Building Commissioning, Palm Springs, CA, CD, May 20-22, 2003.

Efficiency Requirements

The federal sector is a very large consumer of energy in the United States. There are actually over 500,000 federal buildings with a combined energy cost of 10 billion per year. Managers and operators of these installations (mostly Department of Defense and Postal Service) have very little incentive to conserve energy or improve efficiency. Any work that is accomplished toward these goals would have normally been kept in the coffers and consumed by other functions as unencumbered funds. The OPEC oil embargo brought into focus the impact of energy costs and the US dependence on foreign sources of energy upon our economy. In 1975, the Energy Policy and Conservation Act directed the federal government to develop mandatory standards for agency procurement policies with respect to energy efficiency and, develop and implement a 10-year plan for energy conservation in federal buildings, including mandatory lighting, thermal and insulation standards. This act was formalized with the Energy...

22182Replacement Costs

A common practice for existing facilities is to propose equipment replacement using energy efficiency as justification. In general, it is easy to justify the differential cost of upgrades to higher efficiency equipment, but often impossible to justify the entire replacement project on energy savings alone. Burdening the project cost with unrelated expenses, such as equipment replacement that was due anyway, makes the payback look worse and creates an unfair perception of long paybacks. Whenever possible, energy improvement expenses should be fairly separated from normal replacement project costs. Equipment that is near the end of its useful life should be a planned replacement expense, regardless of the desire to reduce energy costs. If replaced early, the remaining value of the equipment may be appropriately 'charged' to the energy project, but not the entire project cost since this would need to be done anyway.

104 Hvac System Types

The energy efficiency of systems used to heat and cool buildings varies widely but is generally a function of the details of the system organization. On the most simplistic level the amount of energy consumed is a function of the source of heating or cooling energy, the amount of energy consumed in distribution, and whether the working fluid is simultaneously heated and cooled. System efficiency is also highly dependent upon the directness of control, which can sometimes overcome system inefficiency. HVAC system types can be typically classified according to their energy efficiency as highly efficient, moderately efficient or generally inefficient. This terminology indicates only the comparative energy consumption of typical systems when compared to each other. Using these terms, those system types classified as generally inefficient will result in high energy bills for the building in which they are installed, while an equivalent building with a system classified as highly efficient...

2856 Energy Codes and Standards

Although codes and standards identify minimum efficiencies, such as those identified above, they do not fully communicate the energy efficiency that is achieved by today's heat pumps. A review of manufacturer's literature on commercially available equipment indicates that cooling efficiencies7 (EERs) of 13.4 to 20 Btu W-h and heating efficiencies (COPs) of 3.1 to 4.3 are readily available.8 When

1044 Packaged systems

A third reason for the energy efficiency of packaged systems involves the schedule of operation. While large equipment is more efficient overall, it only operates at this peak efficiency when it is running at full load. Small packaged units, due to their on off operation, run at full load or not at all. In a central air-conditioning system, the central equipment must run whenever any zone requires heating or cooling, often far from its peak load, optimum efficiency conditions.

203 Model Energy Code

The IECC establishes minimum design and construction parameters for energy-efficient buildings through the use of prescriptive and performance based provisions. The 2000 IECC has been refined and simplified in response to the needs of the numerous users of the model energy code. It establishes minimum thermal performance requirements for building ceilings, walls, floors foundations, and windows, and sets minimum efficiencies for lighting, mechanical and power systems in buildings. Currently EPACT-1992 references MEC 95 as the recommended building efficiency code. The Department of Energy is considering certifying the 2000 IECC as the most cost-effective residential energy-efficiency standard available. Once this determination is announced, EPACT-1992 requires states to determine the appropriateness of revising their residential energy codes to meet or exceed the 2000 IECC.

1332 Increase Source Efficacy

Increasing the efficiency of a light source is one of the most popular types of lighting retrofits because energy savings can almost be guaranteed if the new system consumes less watts than the old system. With reduced lighting load, electrical demand savings are also usually obtained. In addition, lighting quality can be improved by specifying sources with higher CRI and improved performance. These benefits allow capital improvements for lighting systems that pay for themselves through increased profits. Task lighting upgrades are a model of energy efficiency, because they only illuminate what is necessary. Task lighting designs are best suited for office environments with VDTs and or where modular furniture can incorporate task lighting under shelves. Alternatively,

102 Surveying Existing Conditions

As presented in Chapter 3, the first stage of any effective energy management program is an energy audit of the facility in question. In surveying the HVAC system(s) in a facility, the first step is to find out what you have to work with what equipment and control systems exist. It is usually beneficial to divide the HVAC systems into two categories equipment and systems which provide heating and cooling, and equipment and systems which provide ventilation. It is essential to fully document the type and status of all equipment from major components including boilers, chillers, cooling towers and air-handling units to the various control systems thermostats, valves and gauges, whether automated or manual in order to later determine what elements can be replaced or improved to realize a saving in energy consumed by the system. Before continuing with an analysis of the system, it is also useful to determine future plans for the building and the HVAC system which can seriously effect the...

1118 Motor Efficiency Management

Although motors tend to be quite efficient in themselves, several factors can contribute to cost-effective replacement or retrofit alternatives to obtain efficiency gain in motors. We are well aware that the electric motor's primary function is to convert electrical energy into mechanical work. It is also important to remember that good energy management requires a consideration of the total system of which the motor is a part. Experience indicates that despite heightened awareness and concern with energy efficiency, the electric motor is either completely neglected or decisions are made on the basis of incomplete information. At this point I would like to quote me.

2634 Case Study With CC As An ECM12

University staff identified the need for a major plant equipment replacements on campus. They wished to use the Texas LoanSTAR program to finance the project. The LoanSTAR program finances energy efficiency upgrades The CC engineers took the measurements required and collected data on building operation during the CC audit to perform a calibrated simulation on the major buildings. Available metered data and building EMCS data were also used. The CC energy savings were then written as an ECM and discussed with the design engineer. Any potential overlaps were removed. The combined ECMs were then listed, and the total savings determined.

Affinity Laws or Fan Laws

Replacing a standard motor with an energy efficient motor in centrifugal pump or a fan application can result in increased energy consumption if the energy efficient motor operates at a higher RPM. Table 11.5 shows how a 10 RPM increase can negate any savings associated with a high efficiency motor retrofit.

1114 Electric Motor Efficiency

Design changes, better materials, and manufacturing improvements reduce motor losses, making premium or energy-efficient motors more efficient than standard motors. Reduced losses mean that an energy-efficient motor produces a given amount of work with less energy input than a standard motor.3 In 1989, the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) developed a standard definition for energy-efficient motors.2

Economic Feasibility Checklist

What are your electrical energy costs in terms of your utility bill (consumed kWh, demand charges, etc.) or in terms of product costs 6. What costs associated with drive inefficiencies (friction heat, cooling water, etc.) can be reduced by using an energy-efficient ASD system

288 The Technology In Perspective

The future of ground-source heat pump technology looks good because there are many potential commercial applications. Although installation costs are typically higher for ground-source heat pumps than for other technologies, the decision criteria should be based on life-cycle costs rather than first costs then, a ground-source heat pump system can be the most cost-effective alternative. According to the EPA study, Space Conditioning The Next Frontier, ground-source heat pumps are consistently the most energy-efficient, least polluting of all space conditioning technologies throughout the

1043 Air Water systemsInduction

Despite the high pressures and velocities required for the primary air distribution, distribution energy is minimized by the relatively small volume of primary air. But the energy saved in primary air distribution is more than offset by the energy consumed in the indirect control and distribution of cooling water, making air-water induction systems among the least energy efficient.

Table 137 Exit sign upgrades

Although electroluminescent panels consume less than one watt, light output rapidly depreciates over time. These self-luminous sources are obviously the most energy-efficient, consuming no electricity. However the spent tritium tubes, which illuminate the unit, must be disposed of as a radioactive waste, which will increase over-all costs. lights during practice nights, significant energy savings are possible. Energy Savings Occupancy sensors save energy by turning off lights in spaces that are unoccupied. When the sensor detects motion, it activates a control device that turns ON a lighting system. If no motion is detected within a specified period, the lights are turned OFF until motion is sensed again. With most sensors, sensitivity (the ability to detect motion) and the time delay (difference in time between when sensor detects no motion and lights go OFF) are adjustable. Occupancy sensors are produced in two primary types Ultrasonic (US) and Passive Infrared (PIR)....

User and Third Party Field and Lab Test Reports14

Comparison of Water-Source and Air-Source Heat Pumps in Northern Environment, a chapter in Heat Pump Technology for Saving Energy. Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, New Jersey. Svec, O.J. 1987. Potential of Ground Heat Source Systems. International Journal of Energy Research, Vol. 11, pp. 573-581.

1364 Lighting Waste and the Environment

With the exception of incandescent bulbs, nearly all gaseous discharge lamps (fluorescent and HIDs) contain small quantities of mercury that end up in the environment, unless recycled. Mercury is also emitted as a byproduct of electricity generation from some fossil-fueled power plants. Although compact fluorescent lamps contain the most mercury per lamp, they save a great deal of energy when compared to incandescent sources. Because they reduce energy consumption, (and avoid power plant emissions) CFLs introduce to the environment less than half the mercury of incandescents.5 Mercury sealed in glass lamps is also much less available to ecosystems than mercury dispersed throughout the atmosphere. Nevertheless, mercury is not good for our environment and the energy manager should check local disposal codes you don't want to break the law. Mercury in lamps can be recycled, and regulations may soon require it. Energy Savings and Reduced Power Plant Emissions

1341 Isolated Systems

Most lighting manuals prescribe specialized technologies to efficiently provide light for particular tasks. An example is dimmable ballasts. For areas that have sufficient daylight, dimmable ballasts can be used with integrated circuitry to reduce energy consumption during peak periods. Still, though there may be some shedding of lighting load along the perimeter, these energy cost savings may not represent a great percentage of the building's total lighting load. Further, applications of specialized technologies (such as dimmable ballasts) may be dispersed and isolated in several buildings, which can become a complex maintenance challenge, even if lamp types and locations are recorded properly. If maintenance personnel need to make additional site visits to get the

222 Why Automatic Control

Conservation Supplemental enhancement control routines can be incorporated to reduce energy use while still maintaining good control. It is important to note that control systems do not necessarily reduce energy consumption, unless specifically applied and designed for that purpose. To summarize, the desires for maximum simplicity and maximum efficiency are at odds with each other. A system that is perceived as being too complex will likely fall into disrepair and be bypassed or unplugged. If the customer is committed to squeezing their energy costs through optimization, they will need to also embrace the technology and be willing to adapt and change along with the process. It is almost a given that pushing the envelope of optimization requires the operations personnel to accept additional complication and raise the bar of required operational skill. This concept should be discussed in advance to be sure the project isn't set up to fail by being unacceptably complex.

287 Hypothetical Case Studies

The purpose of these hypothetical case studies is to assist the energy manager or facility engineer in estimating the energy consumption and costs associated with the construction and operation of ground-source heat pump systems and comparing them with those for conventional HVAC technologies. The goal is to estimate energy consumption and savings, not to design systems. There are several methods for estimating energy consumption of HVAC technologies, from simplistic degree-day calculations to sophisticated hour-by-hour energy modeling and simulation systems supported by computer programs. The examples used in this chapter are based on an outdoor temperature bin method. This method is described in more detail in Closed-Loop Closed-Source Heat Pump Systems Installation Guide (OSU 1988). Two case studies were developed for this chapter. In both, estimates of the potential energy consumption and life-cycle costs of the ground-source heat pump technology are compared with conventional...

107 Domestic Hot Water

The creation of domestic hot water (DHW) represents about 4 percent of the annual energy consumption in typical non-residential buildings. In buildings where sleeping or food preparation occur, including hotels, restaurants, and hospitals, DHW may account for as much as thirty percent of total energy consumption. Many of the techniques appropriate for reducing energy waste in DHW systems are also appropriate for energy consumption in heated service water systems for industrial buildings or laboratories.

9102 Analyzing Utility Billings

If we were to plot the monthly natural gas consumption and corresponding Degree-Days for a building, the result might look something like Figure 9.24. It can be seen that the monthly energy consumption appears to As a general rule, the simpler the building and its heating (or cooling) system, the better the correlation. Buildings that are not mechanically cooled will show an even better correlation. To put it in terms of our earlier discussion regarding thermal weight, the lighter the building, the better the correlation between building energy consumption and Degree Days. To the extent this line fits the data, it gives us two important pieces of information discussed in Section 9.1.1. The Relationship Between the Weather and Energy Consumption Beyond the Monthly Base, which we have been calling the Building Load Coefficient.

2843 Ground Coupled System Types

The ground-coupling systems used in ground-source heat pumps fall under three main categories closed-loop, open-loop and direct-expansion. These are illustrated in Figure 28.2 and discussed in the following sections. The type of ground coupling employed will affect heat pump system performance (therefore the heat pump energy consumption), auxiliary pumping energy requirements, and installation costs. Choice of the most appropriate type of ground coupling for a site is usually a function of specific geography, available land area, and life-cycle cost economics.

911 Envelope Analysis For New Buildings

Envelope analysis of new buildings offers a different kind of challenge to the analyst. While new construction offers much greater opportunity for economical improvements to the envelope, the analysis is much more open-ended than that for existing buildings. In other words, we do not know the monthly energy consumption (the answer), and are left totally at the mercy of tools designed to assist us in predicting the future energy consumption of an as-yet unconstructed building, the necessary details of which constitute thousands of unknowns. Nevertheless, we are often called upon to quantify the benefits of using one envelope strategy in place of another. We are able to quantify the difference in annual energy consumption between two options much more reliably than the absolute consumption. A number of techniques have been developed to assist in this process. One of the more popular and useful tools is the Temperature Bin Method. However, just as was the case with the Degree-Day method,...

1063Chiller Performance

Most chillers are designed for peak load and then operate at loads less than the peak most of the time. Many chiller manufacturers provide data that identifies a chiller's part-load performance as an aid to evaluating energy costs. Ideally a chiller operates at a desired temperature difference (typically 45-55 degrees F 25-30 degrees C) at a given flow rate to meet a given load. As the load requirement increases or decreases, the chiller will load or unload to meet the need. A reset schedule that allows the chilled water temperature to be adjusted to meet thermal building loads based on enthalpy provides an ideal method of reducing energy consumption.

1463 Finding and Analyzing Improvements that Cost Money

A third purpose for examining past bills is to establish a base for comparison for your energy management program. For your continued economic health it is essential that you manage your energy consumption. In order to find the measures that have worked for your facility, however, you need to be able to show that these measures have caused you to fall below previous energy usage. If measures you institute do not cause the consumption to change significantly, you know that you need to do more. Possible Areas for Energy Consumption Improvement

9121 Ashrae 901 Compliance Requirements

The Building Envelope Tradeoff Option provides more compliance flexibility than might be found in the Prescriptive Approach. This option requires the designer to demonstrate that the proposed building envelope results in an Envelope Performance Factor that is lower than the budgeted one for the project. Because of the impact of the mechanical and lighting systems on heating and cooling energy consumption, the Building Envelope Tradeoff Option requires information for the mechanical and lighting systems, as well as for the envelope components. Due to the complexity of this calculation, the ENVSTD Envelope Tradeoff Software, first introduced in 1989, will be available to automate the tradeoff calculations as well as consolidate the required reference data.

122 Justification Of Emcss

Depending on the type of HVAC and lighting control systems installed in a building, energy consumption Manage energy consumption and demand Lower operating expenses, higher profits and increased competitiveness, keep energy prices affordable in the long term. Less smog, reduced acid rain and less global warming.

1331 Identify necessary light quantities and qualities to perform tasks

The same principle applies to offices, and other illuminated spaces. For a task to appear relatively bright, objects surrounding that task must be relatively dark. For example, if ambient light is excessive (150 fc) the occupant's eyes will adjust to it and perceive it as the norm. However when the occupant wants to focus on something he she may require an additional light to accent the task (at 200 fc). This excessively illuminated space results in unnecessary energy consumption. The occupant would see better if ambient light was reduced to 30-40 fc and the task light was used to accent the task at 50 fc. As discussed earlier, excessive illumination is not only wasteful, but it can reduce the comfort of the visual environment and decrease worker productivity.

Efficiency Of Polyphase Squirrelcage Medium Motors with Continuous Ratings MG 112542

Variations in materials, manufacturing processes, and tests result in motor-to-motor efficiency for a large population of motors of a single design is not a unique efficiency but rather a band of efficiency. Therefore, Table 11.2 (NEMA Table 12.6A) has been established to indicate a logical series of nominal motor efficiencies and the minimum associated with each nominal. The nominal efficiency represents a value which should be used to compute the energy consumption of a motor or group of motors.

1442 Daily Maintenance Practices

Proper inflation of tires reduces rolling resistance and thus reduces energy consumption. Figure 14.11 shows a typical curve relating inflation and fuel efficiency. In addition to the fuel savings, proper inflation increases tire life and decreases the total cost per mile of running each vehicle.

1451 Electrical Measurements

Electrical measurements can be used to assess the condition of individual items of equipment and to analyze the energy consumption patterns of the entire facility. Troubleshooting and monitoring of individual units can be accomplished with portable wattmeters, multimeters, and power-factor meters. Many of these instruments are available in recording models also for permanent installations for monitoring changes in overall consumption. Safety precautions must be known and carefully observed in the installation and use of all equipment, particularly that involving electricity. This records the electrical consumption over a prescribed period. Its most important function is to enable someone to determine the magnitude and timing of peak load demand and the magnitude of the underlying base load (the equipment that is on all the time). A recording ammeter can also help determine the effectiveness of an ongoing energy management program. It can be used to assist operating personnel in...

2220 Glossary Of Terms

Energy Management System (EMS) Facility Management System (FMS) Energy Monitoring and Control (EMCS) Dead Band Also called zero energy dead band. Refers to a deliberate gap in control span between sequenced, usually conflicting, processes, to avoid control overlap and subsequent operational or energy consumption issues. Example Energy Management System (EMS) EMS is the term given to a computerized automatic control system when the primary focus is on saving energy by specific automatic control programs. 7 pp 38.10,11 . See also Building Automation System. Ladder Diagram Also called an elementary wiring diagram. This is an electrical circuit representation where the high and low voltage terminals (120VAC, 24VAC, 24VDC, etc) are shown as vertical lines on opposite sides of the page. Each circuit sharing this power source, with its control contacts and load, becomes a rung on the ladder. M& V Measurement and Verification Master-Sub Master Control See Cascade Control Measured Variable...

852 Effect of Utility Rates and Fuel Prices

Good investment potential exists in an economic climate where energy costs are high relative to equipment costs. However, the costs of goods are sharply influenced by energy costs. This would seem to indicate that the investment potential for waste-heat-recovery projects is not going to improve any faster than energy-cost escalations occur. In one sense this is true of future

1471 Energy Maintenance Management Systems

The most recent energy costs and production data would be available, broken down as much as possible into costs by areas or by product, depending upon the amount of metering that is installed. Variance reports should be available on request to use in comparing actual and projected energy costs.

1543 Personnel Protection

Workers need to be protected from high-temperature piping and equipment in order to prevent skin burns. Before energy conservation analyses became commonplace, many insulation systems were designed simply to maintain a safe-touch temperature on the outer jacket. Now, with energy costs so high, personnel protection calculations are generally limited to temporary installations or waste-heat systems, where the energy being transferred will not be further utilized.

1381 Sample Retrofits

This section provides the equations to calculate savings from several different types of retrofits. For each type of retrofit, the calculations shown are based on average conditions and costs, which vary from location to location. For example, annual air conditioning hours will vary from building to building and from state to state. The energy costs used in the following examples were based on 10 kW-month and .05 kWh. In most industrial settings, demand is also billed. In the following examples demand savings would likely occur in all except for examples 4 and 6. To accurately estimate the cost and savings from these types of retrofits, simply insert local values into the equations.

1551 Cost Considerations

Simply stated, if the cost of insulation can be recouped by a reduction in total energy costs, the insulation investment is justified. Similarly, if the cost of additional insulation can be recouped by the additional energy-cost reduction, the expenditure is justified. There is a significant difference between the full thickness justification and the incremental justification. This is discussed in detail in Section 15.5.3. The following discussions will generally use the incremental approach to economic evaluation.

171 Introduction And Background

IAQ and Energy Management are in an undeniably linked relationship. The purpose of this chapter is to provide the energy manager with a general and overall understanding of the IAQ issue. From this understanding will come the knowledge of the delicate balance between IAQ and energy management and, especially, the confidence that they can work together synergisti-cally and positively to create buildings that operate both healthfully and efficiently. Many authors and experts focus on the mid-70s with its energy crisis as the spawning ground of today's IAQ problems. Skyrocketing energy costs led to tight building construction which resulted in drastic reductions in ventilation air and infiltration. This yielded the early expression Tight Building Syndrome. Unfortunately, this label was not only misleading, it was inadequate in providing a full explanation for the issue. It resulted in the focus of blame on ventilation and its inherent energy cost as being the cause all fix all of indoor...

249 Inhouse Vs Outsourcing Energy Services

The end user sector has always used a combination of in-house and outsourced energy services. Many large managers and owners have a talented and capable staff to analyze energy costs, develop capital programs, and operate and maintain the in-place energy systems. Others (particularly the smaller players who cannot justify an in-house staff) have outsourced these functions to a team of consultants, contractors, and utilities. These relationships have evolved recently due to downsizing and returning to the core businesses. In the new era of deregulation, the complexion of how energy services are delivered will evolve further. Is the process of divesting of the responsibilities and often the assets of the energy systems to a third party. The third party then supplies the commodity, whether it be chilled water, steam, hot water, electricity, etc., at a per unit cost. The third party supplier then is responsible for the improvement capital and operations and maintenance of the energy...

William E Cratty Alfred R Williams Pe

Competitive economic pressures on owners to reduce building operating expenses are challenging the traditional design and control of heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting functions. Facility owners and operators have strong financial incentives to match more closely control, zoning and HVAC equipment sizing to the use of building spaces and outside environmental conditions. This must be done without sacrificing comfort and safety. Energy management systems play a key roll in meeting this challenge.

1333 Optimize Lighting Controls

The third step of lighting energy management is to investigate optimizing lighting controls. As shown earlier, improving the efficiency of a lighting system can save a percentage of the energy consumed while the system is operating. However, sophisticated controls can turn systems OFF when they are not needed, allowing energy savings to accumulate quickly. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) reports that spaces in an average office building may only be occupied 60-75 of the time, although the lights may be ON for the entire 10 hour day3. Lighting controls include switches, time clocks, occupancy sensors and other devices that regulate a lighting system. These systems are discussed in Section 13.2.3, Lighting System Components.

1455 Temperature Measurement

Temperature measurements are essential to energy management and proper maintenance in at least four situations for comfort, to determine where heat is leaking from a building, to define abnormally hot areas in a machine, and to use in the analysis of boiler operations and of industrial operations using process heat. Temperatures in these situations call for instruments such as a pocket thermometer, infrared photography, and permanently mounted devices possibly using thermocouples. Every person who must set thermostats in a building and listen to the complaints of uncomfortable people needs one of these. It is possible to get a rugged thermometer, small enough to fit into a shirt pocket and accurate to within 1 2 F between 0 and 220 F, for 12 to 16. Such a thermometer can be used to calibrate thermostats, and to check complaints. By placing the heat-sensing end on a hot pipe, it is possible to estimate the temperature of the material in the pipe or to determine that it is beyond the...

1457 Vibration Measurement

Vibration is found in most mechanical devices that move. Sometimes this noise is helpful, as in the case of the noise caused by a bucket steam trap opening and closing. Often, however, an increase in vibration of a machine is an indication that something is going wrong. Among the many instruments that can be used to check vibrations, two are of particular value in the maintenance associated with energy management the stethoscope and the stroboscope.

264 Commissioning Measures

CC measures can be placed in two basic categories. The first category includes a number of long-time energy management measures that eliminate operation when it isn't needed, or simply shut it off if it isn't needed. A number of these measures are a bit more complex than simply turning it off, but all are widely recognized and practiced. However, opportunities to

142 Detailed Maintenance Procedures

Section 14.1 gave an outline for the development of a maintenance program for use in energy management. To maintain some of the more complex equipment properly, it is necessary to have more detail than could be presented in Table 14.9. This section is therefore devoted to a more complete discussion of boilers, pumps, and steam traps.

721 General Considerations and Definitions

Kovacik (1982) indicates that although cogen-eration should be evaluated as a part of any energy management plan, the main prerequisite is that a plant shows a significant and concurrent demand for heat and power. Once this scenario is identified, he states that co-generation systems can be explored under the following circumstances

1211 Direct Digital Control

DDC EMCSs can be programmed for customized control of HVAC and lighting systems and perform facility wide energy management routines such as electrical peak demand limiting, ambient condition lighting control, start stop time optimization, sitewide chilled water and hot water reset, time-of-day scheduling and outdoor air free cooling control. An EMCS using DDC can integrate automatic temperature control functions with energy management functions to ensure that HVAC systems operate in accord with one another for greater energy savings. During a facility appraisal of a year-old drug store distribution center, a West Coast EMCS consultant contractor discovered an opportunity to control the facility's conveyor system. The application not only resulted in energy savings, but also streamlined shipping. Sometimes a business-specific or facility-specific application will have a greater impact on EMCS justification than does the energy saving component. For example, a 1990 law change in...

1056 Control Strategies

The selection of set points, even for directly-controlled systems, is important. Thermostats should be set to maximize thermal comfort rather than relying on previously established design values. The need for humidification varies with outdoor temperature and humidistats should not be set at constant levels and forgotten. The need for humidification is also a function of occupancy and should be adjusted in assembly spaces when they are unused or underutilized. The use of outside air for ventilation when this air must be conditioned likewise can be reduced with proper controls to adjust outside-air dampers. Modem microprocessor-based energy management control systems (EMCS) allow for vastly improved direct control of HVAC systems. The energy consumption of thermally heavy buildings is less related to either the inside or outside air temperature. Both the heating and cooling loads in thermally heavy buildings are heavily dependent on the heat generated from internal loads and the...

1214 Control Strategies

A DDC EMCS can serve six basic functions 1) manage the demand or need for energy at any given time, 2) manage the length of time that devices consume energy, 3) set alarms when devices fail or malfunction, 4) facilitate monitoring of HVAC system performance and the functioning of other building systems, 5) assist the building operator to administer equipment maintenance, and 6) provide the building business owner operator with non-energy related tasks (NERTs), i.e., extra-standard functions to make the EMCS more effective or advantageous. There are financial benefits for each of these six functions, yet traditionally, only the first two are quantified in an economic analysis. The industry still has work to do to develop new, accurate, reliable models for predicting energy savings by an EMCS. But, to limit the inquiry to just energy savings falls far short of what is necessary for EMCS technology to realize anywhere close to its truly staggering potential. The energy management...

1462 Walk Through Audit

The first step in analyzing energy usage in your materials handling and storage system is to find out what equipment is being used to move material and, when it is turned on, to check the conditions that are being maintained for material. Then determine where the people are located in the system and what conditions are being maintained for their benefit. To do this, three walk-through audits are recommended. The first audit is performed during working hours in an attempt to find practices that can be improved. For this audit, you should be equipped with an industrial light meter (about 20 to 30) and a pocket thermometer ( 10 to 15). As you walk around the facility, you should write or record potential improvements for later analysis. These improvements can be found in answer to questions such as these Completion of the three walk-through audits gives a qualitative survey of the equipment being used, lighting levels and temperatures being maintained, and some operating improvements...

144 Truck Operation And Maintenance13

Most organizations use trucks in some form, whether for coal haulage, parcel delivery, or earth moving. Wherever trucks are used, there are opportunities for saving energy and money. The three general rules for achieving these savings are (1) match the equipment to the load, (2) keep the equipment tuned up and in good repair, and (3) turn it off if you do not need to have it running. The following section gives more details on these rules as they relate to general operation and to the operation of diesel and gasoline engines. The information presented here has been distilled from manuals produced by Cummins, Caterpillar, Detroit Diesel, and Hyster.

2823More on Federal Technology Alerts

Federal Technology Alerts provide summary information on candidate energy-saving technologies developed and manufactured in the United States. The technologies featured in the Federal Technology Alerts have already entered the market and have some experience but are not in general use in the Federal sector. FEMP sponsors publication of the Federal Technology Alerts to facilitate information sharing between manufacturers and government staff. While the technology featured promises potential Federal sector energy savings, the Federal Technology Alerts do not constitute FEMP's endorsement of a particular product, because FEMP has not independently verified performance data provided by manufacturers. Readers should note the publication date and consider the Federal Technology Alerts as an accurate picture of the technology and its performance at the time of publication. Product innovations and the entrance of new manufacturers or suppliers should be anticipated since the date of...

826 Conceptual Design of the Waste HeatRecovery System

Prior to equipment design and before a detailed economic analyses is performed, it is necessary to develop one or more conceptual designs which can serve as a model for the future engineering work. This approach is illustrated by the analyses done in Sections 8.2.4 and 8.2.5 for the two waste-heat streams. An excellent reference text which is useful for the design of waste-heat recovery systems is Hodge's Analysis and Design of Energy Systems.14

2085Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935

The Energy Policy Act of 1992 creates a new class of wholesale-only electric generators exempt wholesale generators (EWGs) which are exempt from the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUH-CA). The Act dramatically enhances competition in U.S. wholesale electric generation markets, including broader participation by subsidiaries of electric utilities and holding companies. It also opens up foreign markets by exempting companies from PUHCA with respect to retail sales as well as wholesale sales.

9103 Using Linear Regression for Envelope Analysis

In the case of monthly building energy consumption, the monthly Degree Days, can be taken as the independent variable, and the monthly fuel consumption as the dependent variable. The slope of the line that relates the monthly consumption to monthly Degree Days is the Building Load Coefficient (BLC). The monthly base fuel consumption is the intercept on the fuel axis (or the monthly fuel consumption when there are no heating Degree Days). The fuel consumption for any month can be determined by multiplying the monthly Degree Days by the Building Load Coefficient and adding it to the monthly base fuel consumption.

1831039 1514955 1188747 1335610 1146699 1083518 990809 890520 846273 859050 871921 1514955 2703702 1368092 221393

Kovacik, J.M., (19S2), Cogeneration, in Energy Management Handbook, ed. by W.C. Turner, Wiley, New York, N.Y. 26. Turner, W.C. (1982). Energy Management Handbook, John Wiley & Sons, New York, N.Y. 28. Williams, D. and Good, L., (1994) Guide to the Energy Policy Act of 1992, The Fairmont Press, Inc. Lilburn, GA.

1452 Light Measurements

Reducing unnecessary lighting has psychological impacts that can far exceed any direct impact on energy consumption. To convince people that their areas are overlit or underlit, however, it is necessary to have well-established lighting standards and a way to compare existing conditions against those standards. The standards have been provided by the Illuminating Engineering Society in the IES Handbook and are discussed in Chapter 13 of this book.

Performance And Efficiency Terminology

Coefficient of Performance (COP) The COP is the basic parameter used to report the efficiency of refrigerant-based systems. It is a unitless term. This term is universal in its use but not in its meaning. COP can be used to define both cooling efficiency or heating efficiency, such as for a heat pump. For cooling, COP is defined as the ratio of the rate of heat removal to the rate of energy input to the compressor, in consistent units. For heating, COP is defined as the ratio of rate of heat delivered to the rate of energy input to the compressor, in consistent units. COP can be used to define the efficiency at a single (standard or nonstandard) rated condition or a weighted average (seasonal) condition. Depending on its use, the term may or may not include the energy consumption of auxiliary systems such as indoor or outdoor fans, chilled water pumps, or cooling tower systems. For purposes of comparison, the higher the COP the more efficient the system. For mathematical purposes, COP...

631 Determining Steam Requirements

Several approaches can be used to determine process steam requirements. In order of increasing reliability, they include the use of steam consumption tables for typical equipment, detailed system energy balances, and direct measurement of steam and or condensate flows. The choice of which method is to be used depends on how critical the steam-using process is to the plant's overall energy consumption and how the data are to be used. manufacturers recommend that estimated steam consumption values be multiplied by a factor of safety, typically between 2 and 5, to assure that the equipment will operate properly under peak-load conditions. This can be quite important from the standpoint of energy efficiency. For example, if a steam trap is sized for average load conditions only, during startup or heavy-load operations, condensate will tend to back up into the heating vessel, reducing the effective area for condensation and hence reducing its heating capacity. For steam traps and...

Lamp Lumen Depreciation Factor Lld A

TANDEM WIRING A wiring option in which a ballast is shared by two or more fixtures. This reduces labor, materials, and energy costs. Also called master-slave wiring. WATT (W) The unit for measuring electrical power. It defines the rate of energy consumption by an electrical device when it is in operation. The energy cost of operating an electrical device is calculated as its wattage times the hours of use. In single phase circuits, it is related to volts and amps by the formula Volts x Amps x PF Watts. (Note For AC circuits, PF must be included.)

1322 Lighting Quality

Employee comfort and performance are worth more than energy savings. Although the cost of energy for lighting ( .50- 1.00 year ft2) is substantial, it is relatively small compared to the cost of labor ( 100- 300 year ft2). Improvements in lighting quality can yield high dividends for businesses because gains in worker productivity are common when lighting quality is improved. Conversely, if a lighting retrofit reduces lighting quality, occupant performance may decrease, quickly off-setting any savings in energy costs. Good energy managers should remember that buildings were not designed to save energy, they exist to create an environment where

1222 The EMCS Retrofit

With a supervisory DDC system the building operator can effect a dramatic reduction in energy usage by incorporating a simple timed on off control strategy for all HVAC and lighting zones that segregates the operation of the equipment into discrete tenant zones. The control strategy would shut down the tenant zones when outside of normal lease times. If a tenant wished to utilize a space after hours, he she could initial an override (using a simple automated telephone interface from his her office) to signal the system to preserve his her working environment. Additionally, on weekends and holidays the entire building can be kept in the unoccupied mode unless a tenant requires extended occupancy of a particular zone. That tenant could initiate an override from any outside telephone to ensure occupied conditions for his her space upon arrival at the building. Whenever an override is initiated, an operator interface level personal computer could track the energy consumption and or...

1116 Sensitivity Of Load To Motor

When employing electric motors, for air moving equipment, it is important to remember that the performance of fans and blowers is governed by certain rules of physics. These rules are known as The Affinity Laws or The Fan Laws. There are several parts to it, and are all related to each other in a known manner and when one changes, all others change. For centrifugal loads, even a minor change in the motor's speed translates into significant change in energy consumption and is especially troublesome when the additional air flow is not needed or useful. Awareness of the sensitivity of load and energy requirements to motor speed can help effectively identify motors with specific performance requirements. In most cases we can capture the full energy conservation benefits associated with an energy efficient motor retrofits.

Condensate Recovery Systems

As mentioned earlier, condensate recovery systems require careful engineering to assure that they are compatible with overall plant operations, that they are safe and reliable, and that they can actually achieve their energy-efficiency potential. In this section a few of the overall planning factors that should be considered are enumerated and discussed.

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