Learn How To Survive Energy Crisis

Blackout USA

This unique book tells you everything you need about how to survive a massive, nation-wide blackout. You will learn how to come out on the other side of the blackout totally unscathed, and keep your family safe and everyone you love protected. When a blackout hits, the way of life that we are used to in America is vastly affected; almost everything that we have come to rely on is hit. Are you currently able to prepare food without the aid of an oven or stove? Can you keep food edible even if there is no way to refrigerate it? How will you communicate if an EMP suddenly takes out every form of communication and renders cellphones and other means of communication useless? You will learn how to do all of these things and more, should the power fail on you and your family. Read more...

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Off Grid Survival System

Off Grid Survival System is a guide that will show you how to keep your family well fed, secured and warm withot having to rely on the corrupt energy corporation. Youre going to find out how you can finally take control and free yourself from the monthly bloated energy bill you have to pay. As world nations economy teeters on the verge of collapse and most families now experience economical problem, this method will be the power grid that will continue to work. Its guaranteed in keeping your family safe while facing a disaster time. Frank Mitchell is a member of US Armed Forced and a certified off grid disaster survival expert. You'll learn: Why you should live in modern society but not rely on the corporate power companies to keep your home warm and lit. How to take a queue from our ancestors to save money and increase the safety of your home. They had it right 200 years ago, and then we got lazy. On page 7 you'll learn how to assess the exact amount of power you need to keep your home running just the same as it is right now. You don't have to live like a pauper or a backwoods hippie to get off the grid you just have to be smart, and I'll show you how. How to replace your reliance on propane and natural gas in 1 simple step. Natural gas and propane may seem convenient and cheap right now, but they both have a massive problem. You can't create either one when the utility company stops supplying them to you. All of your gas reliant appliances, like your furnace will be dead in the water when the gas stops flowing. The true value of your hot water heater. Guess what, it's not what you think it is. Your hot water heater is one of the most valuable pieces of equipment in your home, but you're using it all wrong right now. You'll see how to turn that big dumb tank into a multi-purpose heating tool using nothing more than some black spray paint and a box. And the best part is you can usually find them for free! How to beat the sun at it's own game and keep your water toasty warm even on the coldest days. Many people think that cold and clouds are the enemy of solar water heating, but when you follow my simple plan on page 16 you'll be able to defy the very laws of nature.The sneaky trick you'll use to keep your home warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer without having to buy a single piece of equipment. All it takes is a roll of duct tape and you'll have everything you need.

Off Grid Survival System Summary

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Author: Frank Mitchell
Official Website: offgridsurvivalsystem.com
Price: $37.00

134 Us Dependence On Foreign

The importance of searching for alternative energy sources cannot be overemphasized, and sooner or later, there will be another energy crisis if we, the people of the earth, do not reduce our dependence on oil. Today's industries, particularly the transportation industry, are heavily dependent on oil, the reserve

Development Of Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

The historical focus of the electric utility industry has been central station power plants. These plants are usually sited outside urban areas and electricity was delivered via high voltage transmission lines. Several things are beginning to change this historical precedent. One is the popular concern with EMF as a health hazard. This has rendered the construction of new lines as well as upgrading old ones very difficult. Installation of power generating equipment near the customer enables the utility to better utilize existing transmission and distribution networks and defer investments. Power quality and lack of disturbances and interruptions is also becoming increasingly more important to many customers. Grid connected, but dedicated small power plants can greatly improve power quality. Finally the development of high efficiency, low emission, modular fuel cells promises near pollution free localized power generation with an efficiency equal to or exceeding that of even the most...

171 Introduction And Background

Many authors and experts focus on the mid-70s with its energy crisis as the spawning ground of today's IAQ problems. Skyrocketing energy costs led to tight building construction which resulted in drastic reductions in ventilation air and infiltration. This yielded the early expression Tight Building Syndrome. Unfortunately, this label was not only misleading, it was inadequate in providing a full explanation for the issue. It resulted in the focus of blame on ventilation and its inherent energy cost as being the cause all fix all of indoor air quality. This is simply not the case, then or now as we enter the new millennium.

276 Research and Development

The oil embargo of 1973, in which limits were placed on shipments from producing countries to consuming countries, had a sobering effect on the world. It prompted a flurry of activity aimed at expanding the use of alternative energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass, and oil shale, along with conservation. Easing of the energy crisis reduced the pressure to find substitutes, and as oil prices fell automobile travel increased. Use of energy in general is dominated by current economics. If prices are high, energy is used sparingly if prices are low, it is used freely without concern for the future. Ultimately, however, when the resource becomes more and more scarce and expensive its use must be curtailed to such an extent that social benefits are reduced. If no new sources are found, or if no renewable sources are available, the quality of existence regresses and man is brought back to a primitive condition. The use of fossil fuels over the long term is dramatically portrayed by the...

122 Justification Of Emcss

Traditionally, a commercial building is constructed by one party (a developer) owned by a second party (investors) and operated by a third party (a facilities management firm). Typically, the building will have one electric meter and a central heating plant. Therefore, total energy cost must be included in the rental structure. Before the 'first energy crisis' and energy was cheap, lessees typically paid a flat rental charge based on square footage rented and nobody paid much attention to operating hours of the HVAC and lighting systems.

Historical Perspective

In the mid-1970s, when electric powered systems were at their zenith in market share, the electric industry was hit by the first of several price shocks. First, the energy crisis created by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) oil embargoes during the late 1970s took a great toll on electricity generation costs. Because the overall electric production distribution process is only about 30 or 35 efficient, skyrocketing fuel costs contributed to rising electricity costs.

245 Effect of Deregulation and Restructuring

I.e., reliability is maintained and costs to users is reduced. The process of integrated resource planning (IRP) is required at the state level. The new law thus accelerates the process of utility industry restructuring that had been evolving since the energy crisis of the 1970s.

422 Basic Design for Photovoltaic Systems

Grid-connected systems do not present any specific challenge to the experienced electrical system designer. The PV system is designed with priority given to local loads with any surplus either sold to the utility or stored on-site. Interconnection safeties and code factors must be accommodated in the design. Off-grid systems require additional attention because no grid backup Examples of off-grid PV applications include water pumping for potable water supply and irrigation, power for stand alone homes, street lighting, battery charging, telephone and radio communication relay stations, weather stations, etc. Additional examples include electrical utility switching stations, peak electrical utility power where environmental quality is a concern, data acquisition systems, and critical load such as ventilation fans, vaccine refrigeration, etc.

3212Thermophotovoltaic Burner Emitter

Radiated from an incandescent source directly to electricity. This method of generating electricity is similar to solar electric systems except for the source of radiant energy. In TPV, the energy source is a man-made emitter. The emitter is heated to the desired temperature to optimize the energy conversion. The heater can be heated by many sources including fuel combustion or chemical or nuclear reactions. Photocells convert the thermal energy to electricity. TPVs are lightweight portable, mechanically simple, efficient, and quiet. They are attractive for residential, light industrial, appliance, and recreational power supply cogeneration applications. Viable applications include (1) off-grid remote power, (2) self-propelled appliances such as furnaces and water heaters, (3) small power generators for recreational vehicles and boats, (4) back-up power for critical loads such as communications, and (5) portable generators such as battery chargers for remote commercial and military...

6113System Integration

The development and demonstration of integrated fuel cell systems in grid-connected and transportation applications, as well as the development and demonstration of hybrid systems for achieving very high efficiencies, are important to the success of fuel cell technology. In order to minimize the cost of electricity, integrated fuel cell systems must be developed and demonstrated. For most applications, this requires that the fundamental processes be integrated into an efficient plant with capital costs kept as low as possible. Specific systems and system integration RD& D occurring today include (1) power inverters, (2) power conditioners, (3) hybrid system designs, (4) hybrid system integration and testing, (5) operation and maintenance issues, and (6) robust controls for integrated systems.

1259 Power System Design

The design of the power system will vary as a function of the type of prime mover, mode of generation, its size in comparison to the grid at the point of connection, and mode of operation among other points of consideration. Recall that the DG unit can operate in either of two modes grid-connected or islanded. A subset of the islanded mode is temporary grid connection to shift load from the grid to the DG unit and vice versa. Not all power generating devices can operate separate from the grid. Static generation systems can operate separate from the grid if the load is held constant and does not have an inrush requirement for starting. Where there is an inrush requirement or varying load, static generation systems employing batteries or other sources of power in parallel with the generation process can be operated separately from the grid. As an example, a photovoltaic system with a storage battery is commonly used in remote locations where grid-supplied power is not available. It is...

43 Technical Developments and Barriers

Credit of PV systems and their power availability during peak load periods are considered, the economics are much more favorable. The broader financial context in which PV power is marketed will be discussed in the final chapter of this book. When the financial dispatch of electricity matures, the true value of PV power will become established, including its environmental benefits. During the late 1990s, peaking power was sold at high multiples of the average cost. Under these conditions, PV power is niche competitive in grid-connected applications. Grid interconnection switching (for grid connected systems) say that complete and utterly reliable disconnect control hardware and software must be present in every grid-connected PV system. Disconnect standards are discussed in Section 4.6. Modern control systems archive data that are useful for panel and array diagnostics.

673Passive pitch control

An attractive alternative to active control of blade pitch to limit power is to design the blade and or its hub mounting to twist under the action of loads on the blades in order to achieve the desired pitch changes at higher wind speeds. Unfortunately, although the principle is easy to state, it is difficult to achieve it in practice, because the required variation in blade twist with wind speed generally does not match the corresponding variation in blade load. In the case of stand-alone wind turbines, the optimization of energy yield is not the key objective, so passive pitch control is sometimes adopted, but the concept has not been utilized as yet for many grid-connected machines.

1257 Power Source Control

In response to this, the fuel control increases flow to the prime mover until the speed feedback matches the reference. Fuel control for grid-connected generators functions in a similar manner. For the induction generator, the load feedback signal is matched to the load reference signal to cause the prime mover to take on load. The speed of the prime mover must exceed synchronous speed for the generator to take on load. Recall that when operated as an induction motor, slip frequency increases as load is increased. Similarly, to increase load on an induction generator, the slip frequency must also be increased. The difference is that in motoring, shaft speed is slower than synchronous speed, and in generating, shaft speed is faster than synchronous speed. In the case of the synchronous generator, shaft speed operates at synchronous speed all of the time. Independent of the grid, speed reference and feedback signals are compared to control fuel for synchronous...

1062 Islanding and selfexcitation of induction generators

Indicative only as they are based on a very simple representation of the induction generator and even then it is difficult to obtain reliable data for the saturation characteristic of the machine. However, as self-excitation is a most undesirable condition for grid-connected wind turbines, precise calculations of the voltage rise are seldom required.

1 Introduction Background and Scope of Review

Example, a thin-film solar cell design for large-scale ( megawatt) utility grid-connected power applications may not be the best choice for a small ( 1 watt) minimodule battery-charger for walk lights. Further, the projected economics of solar cells is based on complicated and sometimes speculative assumptions of materials costs, manufacturing throughput and scale-up issues, as well as balance of systems constraints and costs, and it would be imprudent at this stage to 'downselect' the most promising technical path for the solar industry. From this vantage, it is fortunate that there is such a diverse choice of technology options under development that should lead to thin silicon solar cells with a wide range of cost and performance characteristics.

Wind Energy Conversion Systems

Concurrently, by the turn of the century, wind turbines were being applied in Denmark for electric generation. In the United States, however, with the rural electrification movement that brought grid-connected power to many of these areas, windmill applications declined significantly. While there were experimental large grid-connected wind turbine electric generators installed

254 Controls and Communications Dispatchability

Stirling generators also operate very well off-grid as battery chargers. The generator can run continuously, charging a battery bank, to handle peak loads that may be greater than the engine's capacity. Many photovoltaic (PV) systems are installed in this fashion but require a large number of batteries, since they can only provide charging power when the sun is shining. A Stirling generator can run day and night, thereby requiring a minimum amount of batteries. Since the generator doesn't need to be shut down, the required amount of batteries is far less than even gasoline and diesel generator systems need. When an engine is run off-grid, system electronics can automatically activate the generator when battery voltage drops below a preset threshold and shut it down again once the battery bank is fully charged. AC power can be easily obtained from a battery bank by using an inverter. Generators in this type of system can easily power off-grid homes, remote monitoring equipment, or...

255Utility Interfacing

As previously noted, Stirling generators can be used for both on- and off-grid applications. It is left to the utility companies and their customers to decide what is most appropriate. Stirling generators are reliable enough that a utility company may consider leasing a unit to a remote off-grid customer, thus avoiding the costs of building power lines or larger generators on site. An off-grid Stirling micro-cogeneration system is a very reliable and cost-effective solution for providing heat and power in a remote location. Stirling engines require no maintenance, so there is basically nothing the end user has to do to it once the system is installed. The utility can also choose the fuel used by the generator and make certain it is available to the customer. Reliable, maintenance-free, silent operation and a long operating life are some important advantages Stirling generators offer the utility that cannot be found in conventional small-scale generators. Utility companies in areas...

682 Utility Interconnection

A fuel cell can be designed and installed in a number of different modes. The various modes of operation include parallel operation with the utility grid to supply a user, direct connection to the utility grid, backup power to a normally grid-connected load, and connection to a dedicated load. The most commonplace installations to date are those of the first type. In all of the modes of operation listed above, except the last case, some interaction with the utility grid is required. Interconnection with the utility grid has many advantages including reliability improvement, increase in load factor, and reductions in electricity demand. Connection with the utility grid, however, requires that the power conditioning equipment provide 3. Load ramp rate of 10 kW second when grid connected

Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment with Attached Microbial Films

Twenty years ago, no evidence existed to suggest that dilute wastewater could be treated anaerobically at an ambient temperature. Prodded by the 1973 energy crisis, Jewell (1981) and co-workers converted a fluidized-bed reactor for anaerobic methane fermentation and studied municipal sewage treatment (Jewell, Switzenbaum, and Morris 1979).

42 Constant Rotational Speed Operation

The majority of wind turbines currently installed generate electricity. Whether or not these turbines are grid connected they need to produce an electricity supply which is of constant frequency or else many common appliances will not function properly. Consequently, the most common mode of operation for a wind turbine is constant rotational speed. Connected to the grid a constant speed turbine is automatically controlled whereas a stand-alone machine needs to have speed control and a means of dumping excess power.

1231970s

The scenario turned in favor of EVs in the early 1970s, as gasoline prices increased dramatically due to an energy crisis. The Arab oil embargo of 1973 increased demands for alternate energy sources, which led to immense interest in EVs. It became highly desirable to be less dependent on foreign oil as a nation. In 1975, 352 electric vans were delivered to the U.S. Postal Service for testing. In 1976, Congress enacted Public Law 94-413, the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976. This act authorized a federal program to promote electric and hybrid vehicle technologies and to demonstrate the commercial feasibility ofEVs. The Department ofEnergy (DOE) standardized EV performance, which is summarized in Table 1.1.

124 1980s AND 1990s

Motivated by the pollution concern and potential energy crisis, government agencies, federal laboratories, and the maj or automotive manufacturers launched a number of initiatives to push for ZEVs. The partnership for next-generation vehicles (PNGV) is such an initiative (established in 1993), which is a partnership of federal laboratories and automotive industries to promote and develop electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The most recent initiative by the DOE and the automotive industries is the Freedom CAR initiative.

Figure

Technology by national programs and market incentives. The International Energy Agency (IEA), with funding from 14 countries, supports joint research projects and information exchange on wind-power development.2 These countries are Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. By the beginning of 1995, more than 25,000 grid-connected wind turbines were operating in the IEA-member countries, amounting to a rated power capacity of about 3,500 MW. Collectively, these turbines are producing more than 6 million MWh of energy every year. The annual rate of capacity increase presently is about 600 MW.

1 Introduction

Attention is drawn throughout to important sources of systematic climate data that are already readily accessible to designers. These modern approaches, aiming to provide the user with specialised meteorological data for specific sites, usually try to deliver information to users through user-friendly PC-based methodologies. The most successful now use advanced CD-ROM-based computational toolboxes as a matter of routine. For example, the digitally based 4th European Solar Radiation Atlas (ESRA) 1 provides an advanced standalone CD-ROM toolbox. The ESRA toolbox includes coupled applications modules that enable users to address in a user-friendly way the design of standalone and grid-connected PV systems for any site in the mapped area. The efficient climate data supply from the ESRA database is enhanced to meet user needs with a wide range of supporting algorithms. Global coverage based on CD-ROM approaches is available in the Meteonorm system marketed by Meteotest of Switzerland 2-5 ....

Experimental Methods

When experiencing disturbance from the Grid during Grid Connected mode of operations, the output from the power plant disconnects from the Grid and the power plant goes to Idle mode of operations. If and when the disturbance from the Grid clears, the power plant will try to resume the original output level and reconnects to the Grid under Grid Connected mode of operations 2 . To simulate this situation, the power plant was put to Idle mode of operations for quite some time to achieve the steady state status. The output level was then programmed to the designed value and the power plant was abruptly changed to Grid Connected mode of operations. Data of importance were then recorded manually in intervals of 10 seconds since the computer code for automatic data acquisition was not available from the manufacturer. The experiments on transient response from the power plant can be concluded after the vital parameters returns to their respective values at steady state operations of similar...

Fcsem96doc 9h6h6

The Kirtland Air Force Base fuel cell is located at a boiler plant where the thermal output is used to preheat the make-up water for the boilers. The fuel cell operates in the grid connected mode and as a back-up power source during electric grid outages. The Twentynine Palms fuel cell is located at the Naval hospital on Base. The thermal output is sent-to a 1,000 gallon storage tank where it is then used to supply two separate hot water loops for the building. The fuel cell operates in the grid connected mode and as a back-up power source to the hospital during utility grid outages The existing back-up power provides power to the rest of the building.

722 SNG from Coal

The energy crisis of the 1970s and the accompanying concerns about a shortage of natural gas gave rise not only to intensive research into hydrogenating gasification systems but also a large number of projects for the manufacture of synthetic natural gas (SNG). Of these only one was ever built, in Beulah, North Dakota. The plant still operates today and in 2000 has broken new ground by making the CO2 from the acid-gas removal unit available for enhanced oil recovery (Dittus and Johnson 2001). Given the current availability of natural gas it is unlikely that another SNG facility will be built in the near- or even medium-term. Nonetheless it is instructive to look at a number of issues connected with its manufacture from coal.

131 Introduction

The building energy management (BEMS) concept was introduced in the early 1970s during the world's first big energy crisis. The oil crisis was the driving force of the intelligent building. It was the first sign of the rising awareness that energ y resources are exhaustible. The second driving Jo rce of int elligent building was the raising awareness of environmental pollution by inefficient consumption of energy in production lines as well as in buildings in the beginning of the 1980s.

Figure 142

One-line schematic diagram of grid-connected wind farm. One-line diagram is widely used to represent the three phases of the system. Figure 14-2 is an example of a one-line diagram of the grid-connected system. On the left hand side are two Y-connected synchronous generators, one grounded through a reactor and one grounded through a resistor, supplying power to load A. On the right hand side is the wind power site with one A-connected induction generator, supplying power to load B, feeding the remaining power to the grid via the step up transformer, the circuit breakers, and the transmission line.

147 Quality of Power

The requirement of the quality of power at the grid interface is a part of the power purchase contracts between the utility and the renewable power plant. The rectifier and inverter are the main components contributing to the power quality concerns. The grid-connected power systems, therefore, need converters which are designed to produce high quality, low distortion AC power acceptable for purchase by the utility company. The power quality concerns become more pronounced when the renewable power system is connected to small capacity grids using long low voltage link.

Grid Connected System

The wind and photovoltaic power systems have made a successful transition from small stand-alone sites to large grid-connected systems. The utility interconnection brings a new dimension in the renewable power economy by pooling the temporal excess or the shortfall in the renewable power with the connecting grid. This improves the overall economy and the load availability of the renewable plant the two important factors of any power system. The grid supplies power to the site loads when needed, or absorbs the excess power from the site when available. One kWh meter is used to record the power delivered to the grid, and another kWh meter is used to record the power drawn from the grid. The two meters are generally priced differently. Figure 13-1 is a typical circuit diagram of the grid-connected photovoltaic power system. It interfaces with the local utility lines at the output side of the inverter as shown. A battery is often added to meet short term load peaks. In the United States,...

191 Introduction

In Chapter 7 we alluded to the induction generator mode both in stand alone (capacitor excited) and grid-connected situations. In essence for the cage-rotor generator mode, the slip S is negative (S < 0). As the IM with a cage rotor is not capable of producing, reactive power, the energy for the machine magnetization has to be provided from an external means, either from the power grid or from constant (or electronically controlled) capacitors. The generator mode is currently used for braking advanced PWM converter fed drives for industrial and traction purposes. Induction generators-grid connected or isolated (capacitor excited)-are used for constant or variable speed and constant or variable voltage frequency, in small hydro power plants, wind energy systems, emergency power supplies, etc. 1 . Both cage and wound rotor configurations are in use. For a summary of these possibilities, see Table 19.1. Cogeneration of electric power in industry at the grid (constant voltage and...

125 Interconnection

Distributed power generation sources will generally be sited within the electric distribution grid. Historically, this system has been designed to accommodate a one-way electron flow from the transmission system to the load being served. Grid connection equipment for feeding into the system, therefore, was designed for megawatt-sized power plants that fed into the primary transmission lines. Such utility-grade equipment is vastly over scaled for kilowatt-sized generators and effectively impedes the introduction of grid-connected DG resources. Additionally, electric utilities have

Figure 610

Starting Transient In the grid-connected system, the induction generator is started as the motor in starting the turbine from rest to the super-synchronous speed. Then only it is switched to the generating mode, feeding power to the grid. If full voltage is applied during starting, the motor draws high starting current at zero speed when the slip is one and the rotor resistance is the least. The starting inrush current can be five to seven times the rated current, causing overheating problems, particularly in large machines. Moreover, as seen in Figure 6-11, the torque available to accelerate the rotor may be low, taking a long time to start. This also adds into the heating problem. For this reason, the large induction machine is often started with a soft-start circuit, such as the voltage reducing autotransformer or the star-delta starter. The modern method of starting is to apply reduced voltage of variable frequency maintaining a constant volts hertz ratio. This method starts the...

Circuit

When the power grid connected, IMs undergo surge-connection or atmospherical surge voltage pulses. When PWM voltage surge-fed, IMs experience trains of steep front voltage pulses. Their distribution, in the first few microseconds, along the winding coils, is not uniform.

Figure 821

In the grid-connected system, dump heaters are not required, as all excess power is fed to the grid lines. The battery is also eliminated, except for small critical loads, such as the start up controls and the computers. The DC power is first converted into AC by the inverter, ripples are filtered and then only the filtered power is fed into the grid lines.

1258 Time Constants

Voltage changes will be a function of the change in bus voltage. With the synchronous and induction generator (and, in some cases, inverters having batteries in parallel with their inputs), consideration must be given to transient response. Synchronous and induction generators have energy stored in the air gap of the running machine. When grid-connected, any transient decrease in grid voltage will cause the energy to be fed into the grid. Consider the case of a fault on a grid radial distribution feeder near a host facility with an induction generator DG unit on line. From engineering practices used in fault studies on power systems, the energy taken as a contribution to the fault from the induction machine is four times the full-load current rating and has a subtransient time constant of approximately 20 ms (0.020 s). Evaluation reveals that the initial contribution to the fault will be reduced to less than half its original value within the first two cycles. At six cycles, the...

Figure 1611

At the rate projected by the dotted line, the full 100 percent potential of the wind and pv will perhaps be realized around 2065. The wind and pv reaching the 100 percent potential in the year 2065 does not mean that they will completely replace the thermal and other power. It merely means it will reach its fully attainable potential. Experts would argue on the upper limit of this potential for a given country. However, the wind and solar, being intermittent sources of energy, cannot be the baseload provider. They may augment the baseload plants, thermal, or other types, which can dispatch energy on demand. Such reasoning puts an upper limit on the pv and wind power to well below 50 percent, perhaps around 25 percent. According to the Royal Institute of the International Affairs study published in the U.K. in May 1997, all renewable sources could provide between 25 to 50 percent of European electricity by the year 2030. The contributions of the wind and pv in the total electricity...

251 Design

A grid-connected Stirling micro-cogeneration system. A grid-connected Stirling micro-cogeneration system. When employed as a remote battery charger (Figure 2.11), a Stirling-powered generator can run continuously and requires only one-quarter the amount of batteries required for a gasoline or diesel system. This configuration could power a remote telecommunications relay, an automated pipeline monitoring station, or an off-grid home.

Nyserda Program

Vincent's Hospital in Staten Island, NY is configured to operate solely in the grid connected electrical mode. The fuel cell electrical output was fed into the hospital electrical distribution system. There was no sell back of electricity to the electric utility. The fuel cell thermal output was used to heat domestic hot water (DHW) for the hospital and was interfaced with a 1,000 gallon hot water storage tank. The fuel cell at RTT in Rochester, NY is configured to operate in the grid connected mode only. The fuel cell electrical output was fed into the university's electric grid. There was no sell back of electricity to the electric utility. The fuel cell thermal output was used in an air conditioning reheat system to control humidity in the micro-electronics building which does manufacturing and research on electronic equipment. The fuel cell at the Reifler Cement Company in Buffalo, NY was configured to operate in both the grid connected and grid independent...

About the Book

The more than two billion people in the world not yet connected to the utility grid are the largest potential market of stand-alone power systems. Chapter 12 presents the design and operating methods of such power systems using wind and photovoltaic systems in hybrid with diesel generators. The newly developed fuel cell with potential of replacing diesel engine in urban areas is discussed. The grid-connected renewable power systems are covered in Chapter 13, with voltage and frequency control methods needed for synchronizing the generator with the grid. The theory and the operating characteristics of the interconnecting transmission line, the voltage regulation, the maximum power transfer capability, and the static and dynamic stability are covered.

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