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Spec Ops Bushcrafting

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Emergency Planning 241

Disasters and Disaster Planning 24 2 Regulatory Requirements 24 4 Emergency Scenarios 24 4 On-site Emergency Planning 24 5 External Authorities and Services 24 5 Works Emergency Plan 24 6 Communications and Control System 24 6 Essential Functions and Nominated Personnel 24 9 Public Relations 24 11 Practical Implementation 24 12 Real-time Aids 24 12 Computer Aids 24 12 Off-Site Emergency Planning 24 13 Provision of Information 24 13 Safety Case Guidance 24 14 Evacuation and Shelter 24 14 Transport Emergency Planning 24 15 Transport Emergency Arrangements 24 17 Spectators 24 17 Emergency Incidents 24 17 Emergency Aftermath 24 19

16 Emergency Planning Zones

Transfusions have also been used to save the lives of people lethally exposed. Emergency planning to protect the public in case of a nuclear power accident is in a much more advanced stale than the emergency planning for more likely and potentially more dangerous accidents such as poisonous chemical releases or dam failure because it is required by law. It does present some vexing problems regarding legal responsibilities. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 made the Federal Government responsible for nuclear power but emergency actions may require the participation of several states and many local jurisdictions. The lack of cooperation from any of these may be used to oppose Federal policy. Evacuation in case of a nuclear accident had always been considered a possibility to be considered on an ad hoc basis much as it is for releases of hazardous material that could affect the public. The Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400, 1975) showed the possibility of some immediate fatalities,11 and set...

1914Emergency Planning Community Rightto Know Act EPCRA 42 USC 11011 et seq 1986

Required to divide their states into Emergency Planning Districts and to name a Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) for each district. Broad representation by firefighters, health officials, government and media representatives, community groups, industrial facilities, and emergency managers ensures that all necessary elements of the planning process are represented.

Preface to First Edition

Chapter 15 with loss of containment and dispersion of material Chapter 16 with fire, flammability characteristics, ignition sources, flames and particular types of process fire, effects of fire and fire prevention, protection and control Chapter 17 with explosion, explosives, explosion energy, particular types of process explosion such as confined explosions, unconfined vapour cloud explosions and dust explosions, effects of explosion and explosion prevention, protection and relief Chapter 18 with toxicity of chemicals, toxic release and effects of toxic release Chapter 19 with commissioning and inspection of plant Chapter 20 with plant operation Chapter 21 with plant maintenance and modification Chapter 22 with storage Chapter 23 with transport, particularly by road, rail and pipeline Chapter 24 with emergency planning both for works and transport emergencies Chapter 25 with various aspects of personal safety such as occupational health and industrial hygiene, dust and radiation...

Specific Provisions

The EPCRA provides for emergency planning and notification and specifies reporting requirements and its relationship to other laws. Emergency Planning and Notification The EPCRA ( 301, 42 USC 11001) requires states to establish a state-level emergency response commission and local emergency planning districts to prepare and implement emergency plans. Each planning district designates a local emergency planning committee comprised of impact groups in the community (EPCRA 301 c , 42 USC 11001 c ).14 Each local committee establishes its own procedures and rules for handling public requests for information. The planning and notification requirements of the EPCRA are triggered by certain extremely hazardous substances. The EPA lists over 350 chemicals which it considers extremely hazardous. The list is published in Appendix A of the Chemical Emergency Preparedness Any release of a regulated substance triggers the statute's emergency notification procedures.16 Generally, any facility must...

31 Guidance from the PSM Rule 311 Rule Objectives

Process safety management is a systematic approach to preventing unwanted releases of hazardous materials from affecting workers and the public.11 This encompasses the process technology, procedures, operational and maintenance activities, non-routine activities, emergency preparedness plans, training and other elements and procedures. The defense-in-depth safety that is incorporated into the design and operation of processes, requires evaluation to assure effectiveness. Process safety management anticipates, evaluates and mitigates chemical releases that could result from failure of process procedures equipment.

1131 Ancillary Services

The control area operator functions that schedule Seconds to generation and transactions before the fact and hours that control some generation in real-time to maintain generation load balance interconnected operations services working group definition more restricted, with a focus on reliability, not commercial, activities, including generation load balance, transmission security, and emergency preparedness The injection or absorption of reactive power from Seconds generators to maintain transmission-system voltages within required ranges

32 Process Hazard Analysis

3.2.10 Emergency Preparedness Each employer must have an emergency preparedness plan in case of an unplanned release of hazardous material. This third line of defense mitigates an accident. Employees can mitigate small or minor releases, but major releases require additional resources in the form of local emergency response organizations. The emergency preparedness plans identify different levels of severity in the preparation of plans, procedures, training employees and implementing the plan. Medium to large facilities enhance coordination and communication during emergencies with an emergency control center (ECC) that is composed of plant and local organizations and sited in a safe area for continuous occupancy throughout the emergency. It links the commander, plant management, and the local officials. The ECC contains a telephone, radio network, a backup communication network in case of power failure, the plant layout, community maps, uti lily drawings (fire water, emergency...

195 The Three Mile Island Accident and Lessons Learned

Shortly after the TMI-2 accident the Nuclear Regulatory Commission requested that utilities take a large number of corrective actions in the interest of improved safety at nuclear power plants. Among the items in the Action Plan (see References) were (a) increase in the number of qualified operating personnel (b) upgrading of training and operator licensing practices (c) reviews of control room design to take account of human factors (d) new detectors and instruments that would permit operators to know the status of the reactor at all times (e) hydrogen detecting equipment (f) improvement in monitoring of accident conditions, including inadequate core cooling (g) improved intercommunication between the NRC and the plants and (h) better emergency preparedness plans.

922 Guide Assessments

An outline approach to assessment for emergency planning for a chlorine release has been given by the UK Chlorine Producers under the auspices of the CIA. The CIA has also issued a Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazards (CIMAH) guide for ammonia. Other CIMAH guides include those on LPG by the Liquefied Petroleum Gas Industry Technical Association (LPGITA),

335 US Accidental Release Legislation

The accidents at Flixborough, at Seveso and, above all, at Bhopal, and the development of major hazard controls in Europe led in the second half of the 1980s to US legislation on accidental releases. Accidental releases are covered by the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act 1986 (ECPRA). This is Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act 1986 (SARA). It is commonly known as SARA Title III and was signed into law in 1988. It contains four main parts (1) emergency planning, (2) emergency notification, (3) community right-to-know, and (4) toxic chemicals inventory. The Act is enforced by the EPA. An account of the EPA's chemical accident release prevention program is given by Matthiesen (1994).

413 Process Hazard Control USA

The principal Federal legislation is the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act 1986 (EPCRA), which is Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act 1986 (SARA), generally known as SARA Title III, and is enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Other relevant federal legislation is the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals 1990. There are also the state laws in New Jersey and California. One focus of concern is the control of high toxic hazard materials (HTHMs). SARA Title III is the Federal legislation which creates controls on accidental releases of hazardous substances. The legislation followed soon after Bhopal. Accounts are given by Brooks et al. (1988), Bowman (1989), Horner (1989), Burk (1990) and Fillo and Keyworth (1992). SARA Title III has four main parts dealing with emergency planning, emergency notification, community right-to-know, and toxic chemicals...

Pollution Prevention At The Domestic And Office Levels

There are numerous areas of environmental concern that can be directly influenced by the consumer's actions. The first issue, which is described above, is that of waste generation. Second, energy conservation has significantly affected Americans and has resulted in cost-saving measures that have directly reduced pollution. As mentioned previously, energy conservation is directly related to pollution prevention since a reduction in energy use usually corresponds to less energy production and, consequently, less pollution output. A third area of concern is that of accident and emergency planning. Relatively recent accidents like Chernobyl and Bhopal have increased public awareness and helped stimulate regulatory policies concerned with emergency planning. Specifically, Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 established the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act and forever changed the concept of environmental management. This law...

316 Major Hazards Legislation

The control of major hazards is the subject of EC Directive 82 501 EEC (the 'Major Accident Hazards' Directive), amended by Directives 87 216 EEC and 88 610 EEC. The first of these Directives is implemented in Britain by the Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazards Regulations 1984 (CIMAH), and the other two are implemented by amendments in 1988 and 1990. The CIMAH regulations include requirements for notification, a safety case, emergency planning and provision of information to the public. Legislation on major hazards is discussed further in Chapter 4.

412 Process Hazard Control European Community

Controls over major hazards in the EC are established by Directive 82 501 EEC, the Major Accident Hazards Directive, amended by 87 216 EEC and 88 610 EEC, as described in Section 4.10. The Directive contains requirements for notification of installations, for a safety report and for emergency planning.

65 Systems and Procedures

Some key systems are those which are concerned with (1) identification of hazards, (2) assessment of hazards, (3) operation of plant (normal, emergency), (4) control of access to plant, (5) control of plant maintenance (permits-to-work), (6) control of plant modification (referral procedures), (7) inspection of plant equipment, (8) emergency planning and (9) incident reporting. All these systems are considered in detail in other chapters.

627 Process Safety Management

The PSM system rule specifies national performance standards in 14 elements (1) employee participation, (2) process safety information, (3) process hazard analysis, (4) operating procedures, (5) training, (6) contractors, (7) pre-start-up safety review, (8) mechanical integrity, (9) hot work permit, (10) management of change, (11) incident investigation, (12) emergency planning and response, (13) compliance audits and (14) trade secrets.

819 Scenario Development

Information on release sources is required for hazard assessment and for emergency planning. In order to identify such sources it is necessary to carry out a review. In principle, virtually all elements of the pressure system (vessels, pumps, pipework) are points at which a release may occur. Table 8.40 gives a list of some of these release sources. A more detailed checklist of release sources is given in the CCPS QRA Guidelines (1989 5). The identification of release sources in a hazard assessment is illustrated by the studies given in the Rijnmond Report described in Appendix 8.

4714 Emergency procedures

The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 (MHSWR) imposes on employers an explicit duty to have in place effective procedures to be followed in the event of serious or imminent danger to people at work. The COMAH Regulations also require affected manufacturers to prepare on-site emergency plans. In addition, COMAH requires employers to co-operate with the local authority in developing off-site emergency plans. (See the publication 'Emergency Planning for Major Accidents'61.) Irrespective of these statutory requirements it is prudent for every user and storer of hazardous substances to prepare an emergency plan to cover all reasonably foreseeable events such as fire, major spillage or toxic release. The plans can be at two levels, one for the immediate production or storage area and the second for the site as a whole taking account of the likely effects on the local community.

73 Chemical Process Accident Analysis

A scoping (I) or detailed (2) PSA may be used to specify the emergency actions needed for emergency response zones about the plant. The use of on-site personnel, and their integration witli loc.il. state, and national groups and plans needs consideration._

237 Other Organizations

The process involves the study of event reports, setting priorities, and proposing remedies. A few of the topics covered are probabilistic risk assessment, pressurized thermal shock of reactor vessels, steam generator tube rupture, fuel failure, control of hydrogen, seismic protection, and station blackout, the effect of the fission product source term on emergency planning, decay heat removal capability, diesel generator reliability, and reduction in reactor trips. EPRI's mission relates to all electricity generation, but it works in close cooperation with INPO on nuclear power generation.

476 Legislative requirements

The Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazards Regulations 1984 (CIMAH) represented an early attempt to govern major hazard sites in the UK and incorporate requirements contained in EU directive no. 82 501 EEC18 (often referred to as the Seveso Directive). The Regulations place duties on the owners of hazardous sites to demonstrate safe operation and to notify any major accidents that occur. Where the more dangerous activities, listed in the various schedules, occur the sites have to prepare a 'Safety Case' which describes their activities and their likely impact on the surrounding area. Further, the owners have to prepare an on-site emergency plan and provide information to the local authority who are themselves required to prepare an off-site emergency plan. Finally, information has to be given to the local population who may be affected by the site operations. Guidance on the application of these Regulations is given in two HSE publications19,20. (x) Emergency planning...

Maintaining infrastructure

There are two aspects to maintenance as addressed previously. Maintaining the buildings, utilities and facilities in operational condition is the domain of planned preventive and corrective maintenance. Maintaining the capability is the domain of contingency plans, disaster recovery plans and business continuity provisions. In some industries there is no obligation to continue operations as a result of force majeure i.e. an event, circumstance or effect that cannot be reasonably anticipated or controlled including natural disasters caused by weather and land movement, war, riots, air crash, labour stoppage, illness, disruption in utility supply by service providers etc. However, in other industries, provisions have to be made to continue operations albeit at a lower level of performance in spite of force majeure.

Interdependent Networks

Natural disasters are the most common cause of widespread network failure. They include earthquake, hurricane, tornado, wind, lightning, fire, flood, ice, and animal damage. Utility companies are well versed in dealing with these situations and generally have the means to effect repairs rapidly. However, widespread damage can leave some customers without service for days resulting in substantial economic loss.

What does this mean

The identification and provision of the infrastructure needs no explanation but in maintaining the infrastructure the implications go beyond the maintenance of what exists. Maintenance is more to do with maintaining the capability the infrastructure provides. Plant and facilities can be relatively easily maintained, but maintaining their capability means continually providing a capability even when the existing plant and facilities are no longer serviceable. Such situations can arise due to man-made and natural disasters. Maintaining the infrastructure means maintaining output when there is a power cut, a fire, a computer virus, a flood, a gas explosion or when an aircraft crashes onto the facility. Maintaining the infrastructure therefore means making provision for disaster recovery and therefore maintaining business continuity.

236 Impact Of Utility Deregulation

Many utilities have reduced scheduled maintenance of transmission and distribution systems and generation systems. This decision has two root causes. The first is the wave of downsizing that swept the industry during the 1990s. These attempts to reduce operating costs and improve the bottom line have resulted in extended maintenance cycles, fewer spare parts, and smaller crews responding to forced outages and natural disasters. While many of these companies are showing temporary profit increases, they are also reducing system reliability and extending mean time to repair. The long term consequences of these decisions are yet to be fully felt.

358 Work area noise levels

If it is not reasonably practicable to reduce noise exposure levels to below 90 dB(A) LEP.d then the employer is required to provide personal hearing protection (reg. 8). An alternative to personal protection is the provision of hearing havens from which the worker can carry out his duties. Areas where there remains a hearing risk shall be designated 'ear protection zones' and be identified as such (reg. 9).

213 Strategies to control risk

Personal protection is the final option in the risk control hierarchy. This requires the issue to the exposed employee of equipment that will protect him only and may consist of a facemask, eye protection, safety shoes, bad weather clothing, etc. It must be seen as a last option after all the other options have been investigated and proved not feasible. The employee must be told of the hazards faced, be trained in the control measure in place and in the proper use of the equipment. Checks should be carried out periodically to ensure there is compliance with the rules associated with the use of protective equipment. The purchase of PPE may be a cheap option, but the infrastructure necessary to ensure that it is properly used and maintained may be onerous.

8232 Floodplain and Special Flood Hazard Area

A floodplain is defined by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) as any land area susceptible to being inundated by water. The 100-year flood, or a flood with a one percent annual chance of being equaled or exceeded, has been adopted by FEMA as the base flood for the NFIP. The water surface elevation of the base flood is known as the base flood elevation (BFE). A special flood hazard area is land in the floodplain inundated by the 100-year flood and is commonly referred to as the 100-year floodplain. A floodplain development permit is required for any construction in a special flood hazard area. Special flood hazard areas are typically shown as A zones on flood insurance maps.

1943 Concrete Buildings

FIGURE 19.5 Steel moment resisting frame construction. (From Federal Emergency Management Agency. 1988. Rapid Visual Screening of Buildings for Potential Seismic Hazards A Handbook, FEMA 154, FEMA, Washington, DC.) FIGURE 19.5 Steel moment resisting frame construction. (From Federal Emergency Management Agency. 1988. Rapid Visual Screening of Buildings for Potential Seismic Hazards A Handbook, FEMA 154, FEMA, Washington, DC.)

723 Damage cost estimation using structural response parameters

In the above methods of estimating damage costs (Sections 7.2.1 and 7.2.2), earthquake hazard is defined in terms of Modified Mercalli intensity and the risk is related to the intensity directly through empirical damage ratios. For obtaining reliable results this requires a robust attenuation model for MMI and robust damage ratios models for the relevant property types. In many parts of the world, either or both of these models are not available, thus prompting earthquake engineers to develop models using strong ground motion attenuation and damage ratios linked to structural response parameters. A leading example of such an approach is that developed specifically for estimating regional losses in the USA in the form of a software package, known as HAZUS (1999). This software was developed by the National Institute for Building Standards for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. A further example comes from Mexico, with a computer model first generated for estimating regional...

634 Damage models as functions of ground motion measures

An alternative approach to the above empirical method of modelling vulnerability from damage costs, bypassing use of MM intensities, has been developed for the USA (Kircher et al., 1997a). Their approach involves building damage functions that were developed for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA NIBS) earthquake loss estimation method as formulated by Whitman et al. (1997). Unlike the models given above, which are based on Modified Mercalli Intensity, the new functions use quantitative measures of ground shaking (and ground failure) and analyse model building types in a similar manner to the engineering analysis of a single structure. These functions estimate the probability of discrete states of structural and non-structural building damage that are used as inputs to the estimation of building losses, including economic loss, casualties and loss of function (Kircher et al., 1997b). It will be interesting to see how these potentially powerful models develop with time, and...

1942 Steel Frame Buildings

Steel-frame buildings have tended to perform satisfactory in earthquakes with ground motions less than about 0.5g because of their strength, flexibility, and lightness. Collapse in earthquakes has been very rare, although steel-frame buildings did collapse, for example, in the 1985 Mexico City Earthquake. More recently, following the 1994 MW 6.7 Northridge Earthquake, a number of MRFs were found to have sustained serious cracking in the beam column connection see Figure 19.6, which shows one of a number of different types of cracking that were found following the Northridge Earthquake. The cracking typically initiated at the lower beam flange location and propagated upward into the shear panel. Similar cracking was also observed following the 1995 MW 6.9 Hanshin (Kobe) Earthquake, which experienced similar levels of ground motion as Northridge. More worrisome is that, as of this writing, some steel buildings in the San Francisco Bay Area have been found to have similar cracking,...

93 Seismic Loads In Model Codes

Provisions based on recommendations of the Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC). The UBC and SEAOC define design forces and establish detailed requirements for seismic design of many structural types. Another model code is the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) Recommended Provisions for the Development of Seismic Regulations for New Buildings,'' of the Building Seismic Safety Council (BSSC), Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Washington, D.C. There have historically been considerable similarities between the UBC and NEHRP recommendations, since the rationale is similar for both documents and many engineers participate in the development of both documents. However, there have also been differences in the detailed approach used by the UBC and NEHRP provisions, and in recent years efforts have been made to resolve these differences, because of the move toward an International Building Code (IBC). As a result, the 1997 edition of the UBC has...

233 The Nuclear Regulatory Commission

The federal government through the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has the authority to license and regulate nuclear facilities of all types, from a multi-reactor power stations down to isotope research in an individual laboratory. The Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the NRC requires applicants for a reactor license to submit a voluminous and detailed Safety Analysis Report and an Environmental Report. These documents provide the basis for issuance of a construction permit, and later when the plant is completed, an operating license. The process involves several steps review of the application by the NRC staff an independent safety evaluation by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) the holding of public hearings in the vicinity of the proposed plant by an Atomic Safety and Licensing Board (ASLB) and the testing of qualifications of the people who will operate the plant. In addition to completing a written examination, operators are tested on the plant's...

910 Rare Events and External Threats

9.10.2 Natural hazards There are various natural hazards which pose a threat to plant. Some of these are listed in Table 9.9. The relative importance of a particular natural hazard varies between different countries and between different locations within a country. For some natural hazards, particularly those due to weather, there are historical records which for certain sites at least may allow a frequency estimate to be made. Others such as those involving surface instability tend to be one-off events which are not amenable to prediction. A third class are those involving subterranean stress where the probability of the event may increase over time until the stress is relieved and where the prediction techniques are still developing. Information on recurring natural hazards is generally of two kinds. The hazard may be a discrete event which either occurs or does not occur and in this case the data required are the frequency of occurrence. For such events the usual default assumption...

4412 Use of electricity in adverse or hazardous environments

The importance of ensuring that the specification and selection of electrical equipment is appropriate to the environment and conditions of use is recognised in the EAW. Regulation 6 specifically mentions various kinds of adverse or hazardous environments, namely the effects of the weather, natural hazards, temperature, pressure, wet, dusty and corrosive conditions as well as exposure to flammable or explosive dusts, vapours or gases. The requirement is that electrical equipment which may 'reasonably foreseeably' be exposed to such conditions shall be of such construction, or as necessary protected, as to prevent, so far as is reasonably practicable, danger arising from such exposure.

461 Construction accidents

An indication of the size and seriousness of the problem can be obtained by considering the annual HSE report2 containing data on fatal and major accidents and respective incidence rates. Further analysis of both fatal and major accidents gives a good indication of the problem areas. While the numbers vary from year to year the pattern remains fairly constant with 'falls from height' accounting for some 40 of major injuries and 50 of fatalities.

47 Air Shock Wave Damage

In very large explosions, the type usually associated with major accidents and terrible calamities, airborne shock waves have been known to travel considerable distances from the epicenter of the blast and cause minor damage to building windows. This type of damage is distinguished from regular air concussion damage by the fact that the damaging shock wave has skipped over a large expanse of area causing no damage to windows in those areas.

Steam TurbinePropelled Vessels

In addition to the main feed pumps, a smaller capacity feed pump is also installed on some steam-powered vessels for use in port or during emergencies. Steam-driven direct-acting piston-type (Figure 6) and motor-driven plunger-type reciprocating pumps, either vertically or horizontally mounted, are often used for in-port feed service.

2110 References for Chapter

Weidner, Editors, CRC Handbook ofManagement of Radiation Protection Programs, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1986. An assortment of material not found conveniently elsewhere, including radiation lawsuit history, the responsibilities of health physics professionals, information about state radiological protection agencies, and emergency planning. More than half of the book is a copy of regulations of the Department of Transportation.

Developing Seakeeping Performance Criteria For A Helicopter Pilot Training Vessel

The craft are used for the following tasks winch training for helicopter crews, sea survival training, patrolling the sea danger area of coastal live firing ranges, target towing for aircraft and land ranges, fast attack craft threat simulation, recovering air sea rescue apparatus and air dropped torpedoes and Search and Rescue. The operators report that it is the ability to carry out the deck winch training task, in particular during the training of novice pilots and rear-end crew, which is of major concern with regards to the seakeeping performance of the craft, see figure 1.

522 Establishing an environmental management system

- emergency preparedness and response - emergency preparedness and response Once an environmental management system has been agreed, it needs to be implemented and arrangements put in place to ensure its continuing operation. These aspects can conveniently be split into seven components structure and responsibility training, awareness and competence communication environmental management system documentation document control operational control and emergency preparedness and response. 5. The final component under this part requires that an organisation has in place arrangements for emergency preparedness and response. The arrangements should be tested regularly and the fact recorded. Many organisations carry out practice fire drills for personnel safety and similar procedures and practices are required for environmental incidents. These may include practice drills to test the effectiveness of the response to significant spillages of chemicals to surface waters or to the malfunctioning...

232 Risk Analysis Methods

Probabilities can be incorporated into all of these methods to estimate the overall reliability of the system. Probabilistic techniques are best used when analyzing equipment failures but have also been used with some success in the evaluation of human error or accident. They are of less value when evaluating natural disasters and meaningless when applied to sabotage or other forms of organized hostility. The results would not only depend on the probability of a sabotage attempt occurring but also on the probability that all actions necessary to disable the system were successfully accomplished during the

53 Cost of Prevention

Some of the areas in which costs tend to be incurred to prevent loss are (1) management effort (2) research effort (3) design effort (4) process route (5) operational constraints (6) plant siting (7) plant layout (8) plant equipment (safety margins, materials, duplication) (9) process instrumentation (trip systems) (10) fire protection (11) inspection effort and (12) emergency planning. Loss prevention requires considerable additional effort in management generally (see Chapters 1, 6, 20 and 21), hazard identification (Chapter 8), process and pressure system design (Chapters 11 and 12), plant inspection (Chapter 19), emergency planning (Chapter 24) and research (Chapter 27).

45 Hazard Risk Analysis HZA

Briefly describe at least five specific features of an emergency preparedness plan that would be put in place to respond to a major accidental release of a volatile hazardous chemical. 1. Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) is a freestanding piece of legislation that is also known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986. This act requires county, state, and federal government agencies to work with industries to develop community right-to-know reporting on hazardous chemicals. Industries are required to report to local emergency planning agencies regarding the quantities and locations of hazardous chemicals stored at their facilities. Government agencies and industry then develop emergency preparedness plans to handle chemical emergencies at these industrial storage and production facilities. 3. Five typical features of an emergency preparedness plan are c. Climate and natural hazards should be evaluated.

Immediate Corrective Actions

If the incident involves regulatory-compliance issues, telephone calls may have been placed and reports filed to the local police and emergency response team, the Coast Guard's National Response Center (NRC), the state's Emergency Response Commission, the local Emergency Planning Committee, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regional office, the U.S. Department of Transportation, or the state's water-pollution control agency.

106 Site Layout Features

Workshop Pressure Vessel Plant Layout

The first step in emergency planning is to study the scenarios of the potential hazards and of their development. Plant layout diagrams are essential for such studies. Emergency arrangements should include an emergency control centre. This should be a specially designated and signed room in a safe area, accessible from the public roads and with space around it for emergency service vehicles.

Myths on accident investigation

'Acts of God' is an expression we should avoid, as it implies that we can do nothing about them. Similarly, the use of phrases such as 'cruel fate' implies helplessness and inevitability and discourages a search for ways of preventing the accident or disaster. However, to quote from a book on natural disasters2 Why is the gut reaction of most people to look for someone to blame Lewis Wolpert suggests a reason3 Primitive people, he says, could find no clear cause for many important events such as natural disasters, death and disease. They would have felt uncomfortable about their inability to understand or control these events. The only causal agent our ancestors were sure existed was the action of an animal or a human. So what could be more natural than to assume that someone caused these inexplicable events, even though the mechanism was not obvious. So they blamed witches or human-like gods. Wolpert quotes Lucien Levy-Bruhl 'No essential difference has been established between...

628 CCPS Management Guidelines

The Guidelines are concerned with process safety management. Process safety is defined as 'the operation of facilities that handle, use, process, or store hazardous materials in a manner free from episodic or catastrophic incidents' and process safety management (PSM) as 'the application of management systems to the identification, understanding, and control of process hazards to prevent process-related injuries and accidents'. A distinction is drawn between process and personal safety, the scope of the work being confined to the former. The starting point is the recognition that 'major accidents could not be prevented by technology-oriented solutions alone'.

State Programs

The Pollution Prevention Act contains new tracking and reporting provisions. These provisions require companies to file a toxic chemical source reduction and resource recycling report file for each used chemical listed under SARA 313 for TRI reporting under the Federal Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). These reports, which do not replace SARA Form R, cover information for each reporting year including


Table 2.4 Fatal and major accidents in chemical and petroleum factories in the UK 1981-85 (Cox, Lees and Ang, 1990) (Courtesy of Institution of Chemical Engineers) Table 2.4 Fatal and major accidents in chemical and petroleum factories in the UK 1981-85 (Cox, Lees and Ang, 1990) (Courtesy of Institution of Chemical Engineers)

828 Other Methods

8.28.4 Emergency planning If a works contains hazardous plant, it is essential to plan for possible emergency situations. The first step in emergency planning is identification of those hazards which are sufficiently serious to warrant such planning. Such a study is not necessarily an exercise separate from the other hazard identification procedures, but it does emphasize particular aspects, especially the development and scale of the emergency, the effects inside and outside the works boundary, the parties involved in dealing with the situation, etc. Emergency planning is treated in Chapter 24.

The Netherlands

The First Report also began consideration of the measures necessary to prevent major accidents, against the background of Flixborough. Here the factor on which the Committee placed most emphasis was the management. Unless the management are competent to operate a major hazard plant, other measures are likely to be rendered ineffective. Emergency planning Measures to mitigate consequences which are discussed in the report are separation distances between the hazard and the public and emergency planning. The committee broadly endorsed methods then being devised by the HSE for the control over development at major hazard sites aimed at stabilizing and, where practical, reducing the population at risk.

333 Control measures

Personal protection. Personal protection Making the workplace safe is preferable to relying on personal protection however, this regard for personal protection as a last line of defence should not obscure the need for the provision of competent people to select equipment and administer the personal protection scheme once the decision to use this control strategy has been taken. Personal protection is not an easy option and it is important that the correct protection is given for a particular hazard, e.g. ear-muffs plugs prescribed after octave band measurements of the noise source. Else18 outlines three key elements of information required for a personal protection scheme This is essential to the success of personal protection Appropriate practice should ensure effective personal protection schemes are based on the requirements of regulations and codes of practice16,17. Well-designed and properly worn, protective clothing will provide a reasonable barrier against skin...

108Public response

Prevention included in the training of undergraduates. The Chemical Manufacturers Association has launched a Community Awareness and Response (CAER) programme to encourage companies to improve their emergency plans and a National Chemical Response Information Center to provide the public and emergency services with advice and assistance before and during emergencies.


The airworthiness regulations state precisely the minimum number and type of emergency exits to be provided in the cabin structure. These must be positioned each side of the fuselage. Doors used for services (e.g. galley replenishment, toilet servicing, etc.) may be classed as emergency exits providing they can ensure unobstructed access during emergencies. The position of these doors for emergency

The Future

Various investigators come to quite different conclusions even if they use the same data, depending on their degree of pessimism or optimism. At one extreme is the book The Limits to Growth and later works (called doomsday studies), and the upbeat energy reports of the Hudson Institute (see References)

Federal Programs

The federal government exerts a broad influence via its many agencies. For example, in the Corps of Engineers' major structural flood control program, the federal agency consults with local agencies, but maintains field offices and staff for planning, construction, operation, and maintenance. In another approach, the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) has a nationwide network of conservation districts. The districts perform some functions autonomously, while other functions are carried out by the federal staff. In flood-plain management, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has established fairly complete federal control, although actions affecting individuals are legally mandated by state laws and local ordinances. In this case, the financial incentives of the flood insurance program are the prime motivation for obtaining required state legislation and local ordinances.


Flying is potentially a dangerous form of transport. High speeds, a three-dimensional flight path, hostile ambient conditions (at cruise altitudes), a highly inflammable fuel mass positioned close to passengers all these are combined with the vagaries of the weather, random occurrences of other natural hazards (e.g. ice and bird strikes) and, most significantly, human frailty. Within this scenario the travelling public demand an uneventful and comfortable journey unaware of any danger. Such expectations demand confidence in the mode of transport. This can only be achieved in a highly controlled operation leading to a public perception of safety. The fact that passengers seem more concerned about loss of luggage and long delays in airport terminals than the potential hazards is testament to the high quality of current airworthiness management.

45 Risk Management

The RSSG Report identifies the following four modes of operation available in public risk management (1) information, (2) resources, (3) legislation, and (4) direct action. Information is of particular importance in relation to emergency warnings of impending natural hazards, although the problem of liability for false alarms is a severe one. Where resources are required and unavailable elsewhere the state may provide them, as in the clean-up of hazardous waste sites. Direct action, by police or other agencies, is largely limited to emergencies.

351 Introduction

Passive energy dissipation systems encompass a range of materials and devices for enhancing damping, stiffness, and strength, and can be used both for natural hazard mitigation and for rehabilitation of aging or deficient structures (e.g., Soong and Dargush 1997 Constantinou et al. 1998 Hanson and Soong 2001). In recent years, serious efforts have been undertaken to develop the concept of energy dissipation, or supplemental damping, into a workable technology, and a number of these devices have been installed in structures throughout the world. In general, such systems are characterized by a capability to enhance energy dissipation in the structural systems in which they are installed. This effect may be achieved either by conversion of kinetic energy to heat or by transferring of energy among vibrating modes. The first method includes devices that operate on principles such as yielding of metals, phase transformation in metals, frictional sliding, deformation of viscoelastic solids...


A Costs of low frequency major accidents obtained from insured losses. a Costs of low frequency major accidents obtained from insured losses. their results is shown in Table 5.3. The table gives a breakdown into the costs of accidents and those of ill health. Damage costs are given in three categories costs of injury accidents, costs of non-injury accidents and costs of low frequency major accidents, the latter being estimated from insured losses. The medical costs are divided into short-term and long-term costs. Loss of output costs are classified as those due to temporary absence and those due to withdrawal from the workforce. Business interruption is evidently covered only via the insurance costs mentioned. The figures given do not include the additional subjective costs, borne by individuals, which are estimated at some 4300 million. The table shows the estimated national costs of accidents, as opposed to ill health, to be in the range 4500 to 9600 million.

211 Trend of Losses

There have been a number of studies addressing the question of whether the number of major accidents in the chemical and oil industries is increasing. Early work on these lines was done by V.C. Marshall (1975c) and Kletz and Turner (1979). The insurers Marsh and McLennan (M& M) publish periodically a list of the 100 largest losses in the chemical and oil industries worldwide over a running 30-year period, (e.g. Garrison, 1988b Mahoney, 1990 Marsh and McLennan, 1992). The 1987 edition contains the analysis shown in Table 2.30. This indicates a trend which is rising up to 1986.

52 Cost of Losses

It is convenient to consider first the cost of these losses at national level in the UK. Estimates may be based on information on the following (1) accident statistics (2) fire loss statistics (3) insurance statistics (4) maintenance and downtime statistics and (5) major accidents.


Previously, discussions have been on the theory and practices of PSA, this chapter focuses on the analysis of nuclear power plant systems. It began by discussing the first generation of light water cooled and moderated nuclear power BWRs and PWRs. The major systems were presented with emphasis on safety systems. Safety concerns with the first generation of LWRs arc addressed in the design of the advanced reactors of which a few have been constructed in Japan. Advanced reactors that are discussed are the Westinghouse AP-600, ABB System 80+, ABB's PIUS, and General Electric's ABWR and SBWR. The two major accidents of nuclear power plant are described TMI-2 and Chernobyl the latter of which caused a few radiation deaths and many more deaths from conventional causes. The next section discussed the preparation of nuclear PSAs management and organization of a PSA team, preliminary information needs, identifying the initiators, event tree focus of the analysis, database preparation,...

619 Measurement

Their statistics to be a practical measure of the performance of an individual manager, except perhaps at the highest level, over a period statistics of major accidents and near-misses may be compiled for a company and are then a measure of its performance. This point has been discussed by Brian (1988). A correlation does exist between the level of minor accidents and that of major accidents. The common factor is people, their attitude and discipline.

56 Damage Insurance

The estimates just given for the frequency of the various levels of loss are general ones. It is also possible, and instructive, to construct the loss profile for a particular plant. The construction and use of such profiles is discussed by Alexander (1990a). The method which he describes is the use of what may be termed a frequency-loss (FL) plot. This plot has similarities with the frequency-number (FN) plot for major accidents described in Chapter 9 but, since the loss levels plotted on it are simply the single values of NML, EML and MCL, the frequency is an absolute rather than a cumulative one.

926 Hazard Warning

If the structure of a major accident is analysed by constructing a fault tree, it is generally found that this event occurs as a result of a minor accident and of failure of a mitigating feature which is normally effective in preventing such escalation. In turn the minor accident may occur only if there is a lesser accident and failure of a second mitigating feature. Typically, there is a series of events which result in a major accident only if all the mitigating features fail. Generally, therefore, there are many more lesser accidents than major accidents. This high ratio of lesser to major accidents is the concept underlying the accident pyramid discussed in Chapter 1 and shown in Figure 1.4.

4715 Conclusions

The Society of Industrial Emergency Services Officers, Guide to Emergency Planning, Paramount Publishing Ltd., Boreham Wood (1986) 61. Health and Safety Executive, booklet no HSG 191, Emergency Planning for Major Accidents, HSE Books, Sudbury (1999) Health and safety have for long been recognised as important aspects of working life and there is a long record of legislation and of the part played by caring employers. In the past two decades concern about the environment has become a major issue as scientists have developed ways to measure the damage done to the ecology and the quality of life and to identify the cause of it. Natural disasters have, over the eons, had their adverse effects on the environment but, in the main, nature has been able to accommodate them. What nature cannot accommodate is the gross misuse of the environment by man. This point is being increasingly recognised, both nationally and globally, and there are growing bodies of legislation and standards aimed...

Bowonder And Arvind

Model hazard assessments for major hazards have been carried out by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) to assist in land use planning and by the Chemical Industries Association (CIA) to assist in emergency planning and in preparation of a safety case. The impact of a hazard on the surrounding area may be estimated using a hazard impact model.

102 Plant Layout

The topics considered under the heading of 'plant layout' are traditionally rather wide ranging. Many of these subjects are treated here in separate chapters and only a brief treatment is given in this one. This applies in particular to such topics as hazard assessment, emission and dispersion, fire and fire protection, explosion and explosion protection, storage, and emergency planning.

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