Drilling Fluid Components

Previous chapters have dealt with the major drilling fluid ingredients from the standpoint of their effect on the properties and performance of the drilling fluid. In this chapter, the principal constituents of drilling fluids will be examined as commercial products. As such, some attention will be given to the composition, origin, processing and manufacture of these products, in the expectation that potential suppliers reading this chapter will find a market for new and improved materials....

50

Change in pore pressure with time after embedment. Initial cake thickness was 4mm. Minimum thickness after embedment was 1mm. (From Courteille6a Copyright 1985 by SPE-AIME.) These results indicate that the pressure differential across a stuck pipe will never reach the full value of pm pf. Outmans' assumption that differential sticking always occurs in the drill collar section of the drill string is not substantiated by field experience. In a study of 56 recovery logs, Adams7 found...

Pwpfkxspj94

Pw includes the hydrostatic pressure of the mud column, pm, plus the pressure loss in the rising column if the well is being circulated, plus any transient pressures such as surge pressures when pipe is being run into the hole. A distinction must be made between the pressure required to initiate a fracture and that required to extend it. As discussed in Chapter 8, there is a concentration of hoop stresses around the borehole. The value of these stresses depends on the ratio between the two...

90

High mud densities enhance cuttings transport. 5. Drill string rotation helps cutting transport because it knocks cuttings from the layer back into the mud stream. The minimum rising velocities reported by Martin et al are generally less than those deduced from data in the literature. Release of Cuttings and Entrained Gas at the Surface Structural viscosity impedes the separation of drilled solids and entrained gas at the surface. In a quiescent fluid, particles will not fall nor gas bubbles...

20

Density of mud required to control plastic flow of salt formations. Mud weights given are the theoretical densities that will permit a creep rate no greater than 0.1 per hour at the specified temperatures at the depth of interest. (From Leyendecker and Murray 31) Figure 8-22b. Bulk density 2.22 g cm3, 5 bentonite mud in hole, applied stress 1,000 psi (70 kg cm2). (From Darley.6 Copyright 1969 by SPE-AIME.) Figure 8-22a. Plastic yielding in model borehole, a. bulk density 2.0 g cm3,...

Appendix A Conversion Factors

Table A-l gives factors for converting some common US units to coherent (i.e. consistent) metric units (centimeter-gram-second), and to SI units (meter-kilogram-second). The advantage of using coherent units is that the i S units need not be converted individually when writing equations. However, the conversion of some customary US field units to coherent SI units leads to inconveniently large or small numbers. Table A-2 gives some conversion factors that may be more convenient for use on the...

166182

McGlasson, R.L., Greathouse, W.D. and Hudgins, CM., Stress Corrosion Cracking of Carbon Steels in Concentrated Sodium Nitrate Solutions. Corrosion (Nov. 1960). pp. 113 118. 140. Hudgins, C.M., Landers, J.E. and Greathouse, W.D., Corrosion Problems in the Use of Dense Salt Solutions as Packer Fluids, Corrosion (Nov I960), pp. 91 94. 141. Hudgins, C.M., McGlasson, R.L. and Gould, E.D., Developments in the Lse of Dense Brines as Packer Fluids, API Drill. Prod. Prac. (1961). pp 160- I6S, 142....

Cuo

Other nonionics are adsorbed at oil-water interfaces. These compounds consist of an oil-soluble (lipophilic) chain of atoms linked to a water soluble (hydrophilic) chain. The lipophilic portion dissolves on the oil side of the interface, and the hydrophilic on the water side. An enormous number of such compounds can be synthesized from polyhydric alcohol anhydrides and polyoxyethylene to suit various applications. Two factors help determine their suitability for particular application the...

200

* From Bannerman Davis.06 From Oil and Gas J. f Fluids are heat aged at 460 F in a rotating bomb. In some field tests it was found that the addition of SSMA to lignosulfonate muds eliminated difficulties previously experienced in getting logging tools to bottom, even in geothermal wells with bottom-hole temperatures up to 700 F (371 C). Low molecular weight polymers provide good rheological properties at high temperatures, but do not provide adequate filtration control, which must be obtained...

Waterbase Drilling Fluids Technology

If drilling fluid is defined as a material employed to aid tools in the creation of a borehole, the use of drilling fluids far antedates the petroleum industry. Water, the principal constituent of the majority of drilling fluids in use today, was the first drilling fluid. As early as the third millenium in Egypt, holes up to twenty feet deep were drilled in quarries by hand-driven rotary bits. J.E. Brantly, the recognized authority on the history of drilling, concludes that water probably was...

Formation Pressure 0 Psig

Comparison of effects of chemical additives with water on drilling rate of Indiana limestone with a 2-cone rock microbil at 50 rpm and 1000 lb. bit weight (From Robinson ,23 Copyright 1967 by SPE-AIME.) The action of defoamers is also not well understood, and they, too, must be selected empirically, High molecular weight alcohols and aluminum stearate are commonly used. Gas-cut muds may be thought of as a foam, but in this case the action is largely mechanical. The gas bubbles are...

Jz O

Decrease in permeability with decrease in salinity. a. Brine contains sodium chloride only b. Brine contains one part calcium chloride to ten parts sodium chloride (From Jones.20 Copyright 1964 by SPE-AIME.) polyvalent, permeability impairment by fresh water filtrates is avoided. For example, the base exchange ions on the clays in Berea sandstone are predominately calcium, so that when a dry core is flooded with distilled water, no impairment is observed. If, however, the dry core...

T

Tangential stresses, 357 Terminal settling velocity, 255 Tests for drilling fluid performance aging at high temperatures, 108 corrosion, 127 density, 95 drill pipe sticking, 408, 413 evaluation of completion fluids, 531 filtration, 102 ff. high temperature high pressure maintaining hole stability, 389 routine testing at well, 389 viscosity, 96 ff. Tests, technological adsorption isotherms, 390 alkalinity and lime content, 130 aniline point, 129 balancing salinity, 390 chemical analysis, 129...

The Surface Chemistry Of Drilling Fluids

We have shown how surface forces so largely control the behavior of clay suspensions. But surface forces also affect many other aspects of drilling fluid technology, such as the formation of emulsions and foams bit balling by-plastic clays and formation damage by drilling mud filtrates. In this chapter, therefore, we will discuss the basics of surface chemistry. The interface between a liquid and a gas behaves as if it were a stretched elastic membrane. The contractile force of this imaginary...

Info

135 140 145 150 155 160 165 Degrees, F. 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 Degrees, F. Figure 9-39. Lost circulation zone located by temperature survey. (From Goins and Dawson.se Courtes API.) and possibly damaging trial and error approach. The symptoms and suggested treatment of the various types of lost circulation are given hereunder. When mud is lost into cavities, highly porous formations, propped fractures or other spaces, the mud level in the annulus falls until the hydrostatic head is equal to...

9

Ockenda, M.A. and Carter, A., Plant Used in Rotary System of Drilling Wells, J. Inst. Petrol., vol. 6 (1920). pp. 249-280. 27. Mills, B., Central Mud Cleaning Plant Proves Value of Elaborate Reclaiming Methods. Oil Weekly (Oct. 10, 1930). pp. 56 58. 192. 28. Farnham. H.H., Analytical Considerations of Drilling Muds, Petrol Eng. (Feb 1931). p. 117-122. 29. Doherty. W.T., Gill, S. and Parsons, CP., Drilling Fluid Problems and Treatment in the Gulf Coast. Proc. APJ (1931), Prod. Bull 207, pp....

000

And the exchange constant favors the adsorption of polyvalent ions over monovalent ions (see section on ion exchange in Chapter 4). Although potassium is monovalent, it is closely held in the clay lattice and thus does not give rise to the high repulsive forces that cause dispersion. Steiger20a reports that the polymer-KCl mud developed for stabilizing shales (see Chapter 8) also greatly reduced formation damage. The cations in subsurface formations are in equilibrium with those in the...

C

Destabilization of shale specimen by hydration of a healed fracture a. shale specimen after machining from core. b. after placing water at base. From Darley* Copyright 1969 by SPB-AIME.) of the mud is equal to the in situ activity of the water in the shale formation. This requirement may be accomplished by determining the in situ water content of the shale from density logs (see the section on induced fractures, in Chapter 9) or, less accurately, from Figure 8-32. The in situ...

101

WETTING AGENT, LB BBL IN NO. 2 DIESEL OIL Figure 7-11. Adsorption of wetting agent by shale particles in oil as indicated by interfacial tension of diesel oil against water. (From Simpson, etal.9 Copyright 1961 by SPE-AIME.) Oil-wetting agents may also be used to make a mechanical invert emulsion with linely-divided chalk. Chalk particles are normally water-wet, but by adding a small quantity of a fraction of tall oil, which consists mostly of oleic and linoleic acid, the particles may be made...

300 375 15000 500

HTHP filtrate of 18 lb gal oil muds static aged 24 hours at the indicated temperatures and pressures. (From Remont, et a .64 Courtesy of Sandia Laboratories.) rheological properties, and sepiolite muds are therefore little affected by the electrochemical environment. The suspension properties of the mineral itself are stable up to at least 700 F (371 C).65 Because of its rod-like shape, sepiolite provides no filtration control. However, Carney and Meyer65 state that satisfactory...

11

Pressure distribution in a reservoir with a skin. From the October, 1953 issue of Petroleum Engineer International. Publisher retains copyrights.) Figure 10-2 shows that the effect of reduced rock permeability (as measured in a lineal core) on the productivity of a well decreases with distance from the borehole. There are several mechanisms by which mud solids or filtrate may reduce well productivity. These may be summarized as follows 1. Capillary phenomena relative permeability...

1

Summary of material evaluation tests. Analysis and control of lost circulation by Howard and Scott.44 (Copyright 1951 by SPE-AIME.) oil. When the DOB slurry is mixed with water or mud, the bentonite hydrates, and forms a dense plastic plug whose shear strength depends on the ratio of mud to DOB.45 A slurry that sets to a hard plug can be obtained by adding cement along with bentonite to the diesel oil (DOBC). Messenger46 studied the effect of composition of DOB and DOBC slurries...

A

Lignin and lingosulfonate polymers are derived from the primary units of (A) p-coumaryl alcohol, (B) coniferyl alcohol, and (C) sinapyl alcohol. magnesium, sodium or ammonium, although calcium bisulfite is most common. The spent sulfite liquor contains about 10 solids, of which about half came from lignin. The remainder of the solids are wood sugars, organic acids, and resinous materials. No attempt will be made here to summarize the complicated chemistry of lignin and the...

8

< x3, Least principal horizontal stress Figure 9-41. Diagram illustrating mechanics of squeezing lost circulation material into a vertical fracture. As already mentioned, open fractures occur when one of the principal stresses is tensile. As there is at present no means of measuring subsurface rock stresses in drilling wells, there is no means of differentiating between natural open fractures and induced fractures. Since the remedy would be the same high pressure Initial fracture at point of...

026

* From Mondshine.1 From Oil and Gas J. t Concentration in lb bbl except for diesel oil which is given in bbl bbl. X Mud A 15 g bentonite in 350 ml water Mud B 15 g bentonite, 60 g Glen Rose shale, 3 i lignos,ulfonate. 0.5 g caustic soda in 350 ml water. The effect of mud composition on wear and friction between tool joints and casing has been investigated by Bol.3b He found that small-scale lubricity testers, such as the API tester, do not represent casing tool joint contact conditions. He...

R

Rh Radius of bob in rotary viscometer A. Inner radius of rotor in rotary viscometer > ,. Terminal velocity of a particle in a still liquid v, Net velocity of a particle in a rising column of liquid vs Slip velocity of a particle in a rising column of liquid YP Yield point, as determined in a two-speed rotary viscometer yn Shear rate at pipe wall 0 Dial reading on rotary viscometer Hp - Plastic viscosity of a Bingham plastic J, Effective viscosity of a non-Newtonian fluid To Shear stress at...

600 340

From AIM RP46, First Edition (Nov. 1966) American Petroleum Institute, Dallas. The aniline point determination indicates the relative aromatic content of an oil. The aniline point is the lowest temperature at which equal volumes of aniline and oil are completely miscible. Oils having a high aromatic content have a low aniline point. An aniline point of 150 F (65 C), or higher, indicates a low aromatic content and consequently the oil is less likely to damage rubber with which it comes into...

S

Effect of field mud filtrates on oil permeability of Paloma Field (Stevens sand) cores. (From Novak and Krueger. Courtesy API.) Figure 10-14. After oil has replaced aqueous filtrate, remaining fines are immobilized in connate water- (From MueckeJ7 Copyright 1978 by SPE-AIME.) Figure 10-14. After oil has replaced aqueous filtrate, remaining fines are immobilized in connate water- (From MueckeJ7 Copyright 1978 by SPE-AIME.) reservoir, and the rate of production. Field studies have...

Synthetic Water Dispersible Polymers

Numerous completely synthetic water-dispersible polymers have been made from monomeric materials.* A very broad range in composition and properties is possible in forming homopolymcrs. copolymers, and copolymers whose homopolymers are not water soluble. Many products are synthesized by direct polymerization some by a second reaction. As an example of polymer synthesis, consider acrylic polymers consisting of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Many water soluble...

Birth of the Mud Industry

The use of barite in oil well drilling attracted the interest of Phillip E. Harth, sales manager for National Pigments and Chemical Company, a subsidiary of National Lead Company and a producer of barite for the pain t industry. Mr. Stroud16 accepted Mr. Harth's offer of assistance in securing a patent on the addition of heavy minerals to mud in return for exclusive sales rights under any such patents. Paint-grade barite from the St. Louis, Mo. plant was sold for oil well use under the brand...

Common Inorganic Chemicals

The drilling fluids industry provides an outlet for a number of common inorganic chemicals. Some of these chemicals are used in the preparation of commerical products, and their identity is lost. The chemicals listed here are only those sold by most mud suppliers2 ' Estimates of the quantities used in 1978 are, in many cases, little more than guesses. Several factors contribute to this uncertainty. For example, some users may buy alkalies from the manufacturer, or from a chemicals dealer,...

The Filtration Properties Of Drilling Fluids

In order to prevent formation fluids from entering the borehole, the hydrostatic pressure of the mud column must be greater than the pressure of the fluids in the pores of the formation. Consequently, mud tends to invade the permeable formations. Massive loss of mud into the formation usually does not occur, because the mud solids are filtered out onto the walls of the hole, forming a cake of relatively low permeability, through which only filtrate can pass. Muds must be treated to keep cake...

3 3 5 35

Effect of specific gravity of weighting material on the solids con centration of weighted mud. the surroundings. Consideration of these factors, along with chemical inertness and specific gravity, has made barite the only mineral now used in significant quantities in the United States to raise the density of muds. Characteristics. Pure barite (barium sulfate, BaS04) contains 58.8 barium and has a specific gravity of 4.5. Commericial barite, sometimes called heavy spar or tiff, is...

X

Subsequent work, however, has shown that adsorption of surfactants can either increase or decrease the hardness of crystalline surfaces, depending on the nature and amount of the surfactant and on the particular crystalline substance.22, 23, 24' 25, 26, 27 Moreover, surfactants that decreased the hardness, or decreased the triaxial yield strength only when the failure was ductile, increased the penetration rate of drag bits, but decreased that of roller and diamond bits. On the other hand,...

Thinners Mud Conditioning Agents

The substances discussed in this section have traditionally been called thinners. Thinners are added to mud to reduce flow resistance and gel development, and that was the original purpose in applying these materials. Experience has shown, however, that some of these so-called thinners perform other important functions, frequently of greater significance than improving the flow properties of the mud. Specifically, some of these substances are used to reduce filtration and cake thickness, to...

96

Dynamic filtration from emulsion mud. From Ferguson and Klotz.z Copyright 1954 by SPE-AIME.) Figure 6-16. Dynamic filtration from lime-starch mud. (From Ferguson and Klotz.24 Copyright 1954 by SPE-AIME.) Figure 6-16. Dynamic filtration from lime-starch mud. (From Ferguson and Klotz.24 Copyright 1954 by SPE-AIME.) Figure 6-17. Dependence of equilibrium dynamic filtration rate on mud flow velocity at 75 F. (From Ferguson and Kioto. Copyright 1954 by SPE-AIME.) Figure 6-17. Dependence...

725

The pressure differences shown in Table 9-7 show that calculating bottom-hole pressures in deep hot holes from the density of the mud at the surface can result in bottom-hole underpressures quite sufficient to cause a blowout. A computer program is available for predicting downhole mud temperatures from mud properties surface operating data and pipe, casing, and hole dimensions.5*- It is necessary to know the local geothermal gradient and the thermal properties of the downhole formations, at...

Rpm

Graphical interpretation of determination of flow parameters in a two speed direct indicating viscometer. As we iaw in Chapter 4, the clay particles present in drilling fluids are highly anisodimensional, and can build a structure at very low solid concentrations beca use of interaction between attractive and repulsive surface forces. At low shear rates the behavior of the clay particles is still influenced by these force*, and. in consequence, the viscosity is relatively high but,...

Equipment And Procedures For Evaluating Drilling Fluid Performance

Devising tests that will accurately describe how drilling fluids behave downhole is virtually an impossible task. Most drilling fluids are complex mixtures of interacting components, and their properties change markedly with changes in temperature, shear rate, and shear history. As they circulate through the borehole, drilling fluids are subjected to ever changing conditions turbulent flow in the drill pipe, intense shearing at the bit, and nominal laminar flow in the annulus at frequently...

Xanthan Gum XC Polymer

Xanthan gum is properly classed with the natural polymers, although it is actually obtained in its produced rather than in its natural form. Xanthan gum production method was developed at the Northern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Peoria, Illinois, in 1961. Jeanes et al129 present a recent review containing 49 references on xanthan. Xanthan is a water-soluble polysaccharide produced by bacterial action (genus Xanthomonas) on...

Drilling Fluid Selection

Over the years a considerable number of drilling fluid formulations have been developed to suit various subsurface conditions. Selection of the best fluid to meet anticipated conditions will minimize well costs and reduce the risk of catastrophes such as stuck drill pipe, loss of circulation, and gas kicks. Consideration must also be given to obtaining adequate formation evaluation and maximum productivity. The different types of drilling fluids that are available have been summed up by...

Oilbase Drilling Fluids Technology

Oil-base drilling fluids have been developed to overcome certain undesirable characteristics of water-base muds. These deficiencies are primarily due to the properties of water specifically, its abilities to dissolve salts to interfere with the flow of oil and gas through porous rocks to promote the disintegration and dispersion of clays and to effect corrosion of iron. In addition to providing a means for avoiding these objectionable features of water muds, oil muds offer potential advantages...

1963

Kelly, J., Jr., How Lignosulfonates Behave at High Temperatures, Oil Gas J (Oct. 5, 1964). pp. 112-119. 265. Skelly, W.G., and Dieball, D.E., Behavior of Chromate in Drilling Fluids Containing Chrome Lignosulfonate, Soc Petrol Eng. J. (June. 1970). pp. 140 144. 266. Skelly, W.G., and Kjellstrand, J.A., The Thermal Degradation of Modified Lignosulfonates in Drilling Mud, API Paper No. 926 11 C, API Div. Prod, meeting. Houston, March 4, 1966. 267. Bush, H.f ., Barbee, R., and Simpson, J.P.,...

7393

M.C., Fluid Release Mechanisms in Compacting Marine Mudrocks and Their Importance in Oil Exploration, AAPG Bull., vol. 51, No. 7 (July, 1967). pp. 1240-1254. 11. Perry, E.A., Jr., and Hower, J., Late-Stage Dehydration in Deeply Buried Peletic Sediments, AAPG Bull., vol. 56, No. 10 (Oct., 1972). pp. 2013-2021 12. Schmidt, G.W., Interstitial Water Composition and Geochemistry of Deep Gulf Coast Shales and Sandstones, APPG Bull., vol. 57, No. 2 (Feb., 1973). pp 321 337. 1.3....

2k 3k 4k 5k

The composite failure envelope showing a family of Mohr stress circles tangent at point A and one Mohr stress circle tangent at each of points B and C. (From Secor.4i Courtesy Am. J. Science.) Figure 9-35. A failure envelope diagram showing the effect of an incremental increase of fluid pressure on the position of the Mohr stress circle, assuming the total principal stresses remain constant. (From Secor.41 Courtesy Am. J. Science.) Figure 9-35. A failure envelope diagram showing...

Environmental Aspects of Drilling Fluids

Much attention has been given in recent years to the environmental aspects of both the drilling operation and the drilling fluid components. Well-deserved concern with the possibility of polluting under-ground water supplies and of damaging marine organisms, as well as with the more readily observed effects on soil productivity and surface water quality, has stimulated wide-spread studies on this subject. Extensive work is now in progress, and this brief survey may be of only historical...

Table 112 Barite Requirements for API Specification

Sieve (ASTM) no. 200 3.0 maximum Residue on U.S. Sieve (ASTM) no. 325 5.0 minimum Soluble alkaline earth metals as calcium 250 ppm, maximum Courtesy API Specification for Oil-Well Drilling-Fluid Materials, API Spec. 13-A, seventh edition. Mav. 1979. used about 750 lb bbl (2100 kg m3). The minimum concentration of barite might be as low as 10 lb bbl (28 kg m3), although usually it would be substantially higher. The quantity of barite required to raise the density of a given...

Introduction To Drilling Fluids

The successful completion of an oil well and its cost depend to a considerable extent on the properties of the drilling fluid. The cost of the drilling fluid itself is relatively small, but the choice of the right fluid and maintenance of the right properties while drilling profoundly influence total well costs. For example, the number of rig days required to drill to total depth depends on the rate of penetration of the bit, and on the avoidance of delays caused by caving shales, stuck drill...

Tct In Drilling

1 TCT thermodynamic crystallization temperature 1 TCT thermodynamic crystallization temperature Table 10-8 Sodium Chloride Sodium Bromide Brine Density H20 NaCl NaBr Freezing Point 10.0 .886 119.0 0 4-30 10.5 .871 89.6 46.4 19 11,5 .841 48.8 139.0 -12 12.0 .826 28.5 186.0 -3 TCT 12.5 .812 8.1 232.0 31 TCT 12.7 .806 0 251.0 45 TCT Based on 100 NaCl and 95 NaBr TCT thermodynamic crystallization temperature tion temperature is matched to environmental conditions. Density and crystallization...

Clay Mineralogy And The Colloid Chemistry Of Drilling Fluids

Anyone concerned with drilling fluids technology should have a good basic knowledge of clay mineralogy, as clay provides the colloidal base of nearly all aqueous muds, and is also used in oil-based drilling fluids. Drill cuttings from argillaceous formations become incorporated in the drilling fluid, and profoundly change its properties. The stability of the borehole depends to a large extent on interactions between the drilling fluid and exposed shale formations. Interactions between the mud...

Attapulgite Requirements for API Specification

Moisture, as shipped from point of manufacture Wet screen analysis, residue on U.S. Sieve ASTM no. 200 Properties of a suspension of 20 g attapulgite clay as received in 350 cmJ of a saturated sodium chloride solution stirred 20 minutes 2 drops of octyl alcohol added to break the foam. Courtes API Specification for OH- Well Drilling-Fluid Materials, API Spec. 13-A. seventh edition. May, 1979. and special methods of rapid drying while pulverizing are recommended as a method of further improving...

N

Pressure of fluid in formation pores pw pressure required to induce a fracture pm plus pressure drop in annulus, plus any transient pressure Overburden pressure, solids plus liquids . Mondshine, T.C., Drilling Mud Lubricity, Oil Gas J. Dec. 7. 1970 . pp. 70 77. 2. Rosenberg, M., and Tailleur, R.H., Increased Drill Bit Use Through Use ot Extreme Pressure Lubricant Drilling Fluids, J. Petrol. Technol. Aug., 1959 . pp 195-202 Trans AIME, vol. 216. 3. Browning, W.C., Extreme-Pressure Lubes in...

01

Solids Content of Drilling Mud Volume Percent Figure 2-9. Effect of solids on drilling performance. From World Oil. Further studies96 led to the introduction of a bentonite extender polymer for the preparation of a low-solids, fresh-water mud. This mud was composed of about 3 by weight of bentonite, 0.01 polymer and 0.05 soda ash. A five-well test program in Wood County, Texas, showed the effect of solids content on drilling progress, as illustrated in Figure 2-9.9 7 In a later report,98 the...

Pressure Control by Mud Density

A serious problem the enormous waste of natural gas in drilling by the cable-tool method in Oklahoma led to the general acceptance of mud laden fluid as a means of controlling pressure. In May 1913, Pollard and Heggem11 11 of the U.S. Bureau of Mines, demonstrated the practicality of Figure 2-3. This mud mixer used shortly after the turn of the century served the same purpose as today's mixers. From Gray,89 World OH. Figure 2-3. This mud mixer used shortly after the turn of the century served...

Rapid Growth of the Mud Industry

After the California Division of Oil and Gas Operations was established in 1915, the employment of engineers in the oil industry began to increase. Usually, the engineers were concerned only with production and little attention was given to drilling.20 Several discussions on the use of mud were reported, however, in Summary of Operations California Oil Fields2 J and some of these were reprinted in oil industry publications.22 The mechanism of wall building in the drill hole was studied to some...

Oil Emulsion Muds

At about the time that lime muds came into use in Gulf Coast drilling, oil emulsion mud was recognized as a method of making a good mud better. Much earlier, oil had been used to loosen stuck drill pipe and to slick up the hole before running casing25. Drillers in the Oklahoma City field 1934 -1936 added crude oil to mud to reduce sticking of pipe, and in 1937 a drilling contractor in Pottawatamie County, Oklahoma, noted a faster drilling rate after adding oil.66 By 1950 numerous reports of...