Professional Makeup For Beginners

Make-up For Beginners

Make-Up for Beginners: Learn Doing Make-Up like a Pro is an online course created by Lana Vallo. It helps individuals do their makeups in a professional way such that they are durable, last for long and enhance beauty. It transforms you into an expert that other people will turn to for help over and over. Subscribing to this program guarantees you more beautiful than ever before. The course was designed following an increasing demand for brand-neutral, timely, and professional advice on the skill of makeup. Enrolling to the course does not require any special tool or requirements. Nonetheless, once you are done with the sessions you will require professional makeup brushes and other necessary tools including a complete makeup kit. It will also be necessary that you find a model for putting into practice all the strategies covered by the video tutorials, especially if you aspire to do makeups for other individuals. This is a fantastic program with thousands of positive reviews. It will significantly improve your skills and make you an expert in the makeup industry. Payment is processed via ClickBank and the product has a 60-day warranty. Continue reading...

Makeup For Beginners Summary


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58 Feeds With Makeuppurge To Tankage

The control system shown in Figure 5.10A is a simple technique for minimizing energy consumption. The two valves on the makeup and purge lines from and to the feed tank are split ranged so that both valves cannot be open at the same time. This guarantees that a minimum amount of material is going to or coming from the tank. Makeup purge feed systems Makeup purge feed systems

1845 1855 1865 1875 1885 1895 1905 1915 1925 1935

Kelp can be economically valuable, since it is the source of algin used in foods, paints, and cosmetics. In the late 1900s kelp began to disappear mysteriously, leaving a barren ocean floor. The mystery was solved when it was recognized that sea urchins feed on the kelp, weaken the stems, and cause them to detach and float away. The sea urchin population had increased because the population of the predators, the sea otters, had been reduced drastically. The solution was protection of the sea otter and increase in its population, resulting in a reduction of the sea urchin population and maintenance of the kelp forests.

52 Analysis Of Boilers And Fired Systems

A mass balance is used to determine where all mass enters and leaves a system. There are several methods in which a mass balance can be performed that can be useful in the analysis of a boiler or other fired system. In the case of a steam boiler, a mass balance can be used in the form of a water balance (steam, condensate return, makeup water, blowdown, and feedwater.) A mass balance can also be used for water quality or chemical balance (total dissolved solids, or other impurity.) The mass balance can also be used in the form of a combustion analysis (fireside mass balance consisting of air and fuel in and combustion gasses and excess air out.) This type of analysis is the foundation for determining combustion efficiency and determining the optimum air-to-fuel ratio.

2Minimize Blowdown by Automatic Adjustment

Decrease Blowdown by Recovering More Condensate. Since clean condensate may be assumed to be essentially free of water impurities, addition of condensate to the makeup water serves to dilute the concentration of impurities. The change in required blowdown may be calculated using equations 5.3 and 5.5.

233 Fine crushers The buhrstone mill

The buhrstone mill shown in Figure 2.18 is one of the oldest forms of fine crushing equipment, though it has been very largely superseded now by roller mills. Grinding takes place between two heavy horizontal wheels, one of which is stationary and the other is driven. The surface of the stones is carefully dressed so that the material is continuously worked outwards from the centre of the circumference of the wheels. Size reduction takes place by a shearing action between the edges of the grooves on the two grinding stones. This equipment has been used for the grinding of grain, pigments for paints, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and printer's ink, although it is now used only where the quantity of material is very small.

435 Employee Evaluations

Next is the very important aspect of listing information relative to the people who will be working in the facility. It should include the age, education, sex, religious, philosophical, mental, and physical makeup of the potential workforce. This list can then be combined into summary workforce groups. This can simplify the design response to the various workforce needs and preferences. The makeup of the workforce can be important in determining the space requirements beyond the production line. A workforce that is predominantly highly religious and well educated will have different needs than a workforce made up of uneducated agnostics. If there are mostly 6-ft-tall, 250-lb American males, the aisles will need to be wide. They could be narrower for a predominantly female Asian workforce, for whom the average is about 5 ft 3 in. tall and slight build. The section in this book on human factors (Subchapter 5.1) will provide useful data on dimensions, strengths, and spatial needs of...

Environmental Health and Building Protection

Pre-cool the make-up air and dehumidify it with a desiccant unit before the air blends with return air from the room. When the system requires a large proportion of makeup air, this schematic is generally the most economical to install ana operate. Due to exhaust requirements, 800 cfm (23 m3 m) of makeup air is required at a design condition of 91 F (33 C), with a moisture level of 147 gr lbm (0.0210 kg kg). The incoming air is precooled to 50 F (10 C) and 54 gr lbm (0.0077 kg kg), adding 154,800 gr h (10.0 kg h) to the moisture load, which must be removed by the dehumidi-fiers.

Round Threads Figure 4373

C. to make the crests less susceptible to harmful damage from minor scratches or dents. If insufficient interference is applied during makeup, the leak path through the connection could be through the annular clearance between mated crest and roots. Proper thread compound is necessary to ensure leak resistance.

Round Thread through 131 in OD

It is advisable when starting to run casing from each particular mill shipment to make up sufficient joints to determine the torque necessary to provide proper makeup. See paragraph 1.15 for proper number of turns beyond hand-tight position. These values may indicate that a departure from the recommended optimum values listed in Table 4-153 is advisable. If other optimum torque values are chosen, the minimum torque should not be less than 75 of the optimum selected. The maximum torque should be not more than 125 of the optimum torque. c. Continue the makeup, observing both the torque gage and the approximate position of the coupling face with respect to the last scratch position. d. The optimum torque values as shown in Table 4-153 have been selected to give optimum makeup under normal conditions and should be considered as satisfactory providing the face of the coupling is flush with the last scratch or within two thread turns plus or minus the last scratch. e. If the makeup is...

Colorado Springs Treatment Plant

A full, tertiary treatment plant is in operation in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The plant was designed with the objective of producing a high-quality effluent that is acceptable both as irrigation water and makeup water for power station cooling towers. The plant has a dual design. Both systems use the effluent from an existing trickling filter treatment plant. The system that produces cooling tower makeup water is more extensive, reflecting the more stringent effluent quality requirements (see Figure 7.31.8). The trickling filter effluent first enters a solids-contact clarifier where a slurry of mostly recycled lime coagulates the SS and precipitates the phosphates. The effluent is then neutralized FIG. 7.31.8 Colorado Springs treatment plant section producing an effluent quality that is acceptable as power plant makeup water. FIG. 7.31.8 Colorado Springs treatment plant section producing an effluent quality that is acceptable as power plant makeup water. The retention time in the...

Stubbing Making Up and Lowering

Note Recommendations in paragraphs 1.13 and 1.14 for casing makeup apply to the use of power tongs. For recommendations of makeup of casing with spinning lines and conventional tongs, see paragraph 1.15. 1.13 The use of power tongs for making up casing made desirable the establishment of recommended torque values for each size, weight and grade of casing. Early studies and tests indicated that torque values are affected by a large number of variables, such as variations in taper, lead, thread height and thread form surface finish type of thread compound length of thread weight and grade of pipe etc. In view of the number of variables and the extent that those variables, alone or in combination, could affect the relationship of torque versus madeup positions, it was evident that both applied torque and madeup position must be considered. Since the API joint pullout strength formula in API Bulletin 5C2 contains several of the variables believed to affect torque, the use of a...

79 Hightemperature Alloys

The need for high-temperature materials is encountered in a wide variety of modern industries such as in aerospace, metallurgical, chemical, petrochemical, glass manufacture, heat treatment, waste incinerators, heat recovery, advanced energy conversion systems, and others. Depending on the condition of chemical makeup and temperatures, a variety of aggressive corrosive environments are produced, which could be either sulfidizing, carburizing, halogenizing, nitriding, reducing, and oxidizing in nature or a combination thereof. All high-temperature alloys have certain limitations and the optimum choice is often a compromise between the mechanical property requirement constraints at maximum temperature of operation and environmental degradation constraints imposed due to the corrosive species present.

Preparation Of Coagulant Solutions

Thorough dispersion of the polyelectrolyte in the makeup water is essential, although this can be achieved by mechanical agitation, most systems use a disperser (see Figure 7.34.9) or an eductor jet. The vacuum created by the high-velocity water flow sucks in the solids and disperses them uniformly. If an educator jet is used, it can suck the polyelectrolyte from the container through a semirigid polyethylene hose.

MAN scavenging system

Major repair eng Repair work on items of material or equipment that need complete overhaul or substantial replacement of parts, or that require special tools. 'ma-jsr ri'per makeup air eng The volume of air required to replace air exhausted from a given space. 'mak,sp ,er makeup water chem eng Water feed needed to replace that which is lost by evaporation or leakage in a closed-circuit, recycle operation. 'ma,ksp ,wod-sr male connector elec An electrical connector with protruding contacts for joining with a female connector. 'mal ks'nek-tsr mallet des eng An implement with a barrel-shaped head made of wood, rubber, or other soft material used for driving another tool, such as a chisel, or for striking a surface without causing damage. 'mal-st Mallory bonding des eng Hermetically sealing polished silicon chips to polished glass plates by placing the two pieces together, heating them to about 3500C (6620F), and applying approximately 8000 volts across the assembly. 'mal-s-re ,band-ig...

8110 Open Waste Heat Exchangers

The makeup air for an occupied space is tempered by mixing it with the hot exhaust products from the stack of a gas-fired furnace in a plenum before discharge into the space. This recovery method may be prohibited by codes because of the danger of toxic carbon monoxide a monitor should be used to test the plenum gases.

Potassium Chloride Polymer Muds

The KCl-polymer muds are prepared by mixing potassium chloride (KC1) with fresh or saltwater. The desired KCl concentration depends upon the instability of the borehole and ranges from 3.5 by weight for drilling in shales containing illites and kaolinites to 10 by weight for drilling in bentonite shales. The polymer is then mixed in slowly through the hopper to the desired concentration (0.1 to 0.8 lb gal depending upon the type of polymer). For additional viscosity, prehydrated bentonite (salt makeup water) can be added (0 to 12 lb bbl) until satisfactory hole cleaning is achieved. The mud is adjusted to a pH of 9 to 10 with KOH or caustic soda. For filtration control, an organic filtration control agent should be used as recommended by the manufacturer.

Round Thread and Buttress Thread 16 18 f and 20in OD

OD shall be to a position on each connection represented by last scratch on 8-round thread and the 1.15 When conventional tongs are used for casing makeup, tighten with tongs to proper degree of tightness. The joint should be made up beyond the hand-tight position at least three turns for sizes through 7 in., and at least three-and-one-half turns for sizes 71 in. and larger, except of 9 4 and 101 in. grade, P-110 and 20 in grade J-55 and K-55 which should be made up four turns beyond hand-tight position. When using a spinning line, it is necessary to compare hand-tightness with spin-up tight position. Compare relative position of these two makeups and use this information to determine when the joint is made up the recom-

Extended Bentonite Systems

The bentonite should be specially selected for this type of system as being an untreated high yield Wyoming bentonite. The fluid has poor tolerance to calcium and salt, so the makeup water should be of good quality and pretreated with sodium carbonate, if any hardness exists. To increase viscosity bentonite extender is added through the hopper at the rate of one pound for every five sacks of bentonite. The extender is dissolved in water in the chemical barrel and added at a rate dependent on the drilling rate. Excessively high viscosities and gel strengths are normally the result of too high a solids content, which should be kept in the range 2-5 by dilution. Dispersants should not be added

Installation Features

FIG. 29-56 Flow diagram of a system with a power-recovery turbine operating with a makeup driver. FIG. 29-56 Flow diagram of a system with a power-recovery turbine operating with a makeup driver. FIG. 29-57 Performance of a power-recovery turbine operating with a makeup driver. FIG. 29-57 Performance of a power-recovery turbine operating with a makeup driver.

Design Considerations

Involved in producing the curves for Figs. 29-53 and 29-55 is a calculation of the so-called balance point at which the flow and revolutions per minute required by the recovery unit match those provided by the pump. If the recovery turbine is the sole driver (as for the lean pump of Fig. 29-54), both the speed and the brake horsepower of the recovery turbine and its driven pump must be the same at the so-called balance point. If there is a makeup driver and the recovery unit has available to it just the flow from the pump that it is driving, as for the pump of Fig. 29-56, then the speed and capacity must match at the balance point. Design Bases It is apparent that the balance point is always determined by the power r min characteristics of the driven unit as sensed at the coupling by the shaft of the power-recovery pumpturbine. If the driven unit can simply soak up any (all) of the generated horsepower, for instance, a floating electric generator, then capacity control and pressure...

Condensers Equipment Classifications

Evaporative condensers (Figure 36-3) are similar to air-cooled units, but include a water spray to cool the external surfaces of condenser coils and reduce condensing temperature. Ambient air passing over the coils evaporates a small amount of water, absorbing heat from the air stream and refrigerant coils. Condensing refrigerant drains into a liquid receiver at the bottom of the condenser. Non-evaporated water drains into a sump at the bottom of the unit and is then pumped along with required makeup water to spray nozzles above the coils.

Operation and Control Equipment

When a power recovery turbine is combined with a makeup driver, except at a single point, the recovery turbine always requires either flow bypassing or inlet pressure throttling. The balance point is always deter mined by the power-speed characteristics of the driven unit. If the driven unit can use all the generated horsepower, such as a floating electric generator would, capacity control and pressure throttling may not be needed. When a speed-controlling, variable-horsepower helper driver such as an electric motor or steam turbine is used it will hold the speed constant and make up just enough horsepower to permit the power recovery pump turbine to satisfy its head-capacity curve at virtually any flow rate.

Running and Pulling Casing

If the stand-off is abnormally great, check the coupling for tightness. Tighten any loose couplings after thoroughly cleaning the threads and applying fresh compound over the entire thread surfaces, and before pulling the pipe into the derrick.

117 Must nuclear power stations be so hazardous

High temperature gas reactor a small graphite-moderated core is cooled by high pressure helium. The high temperature resistance of the fuel and the high surface-to-volume ratio ensure that the after-heat is lost by radiation and conduction. In the Swedish Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) Reactor a water-cooled core is immersed in a solution of boric acid in water. If the coolant pumps fail the boric acid solution is drawn through the core by convection. The boron absorbs neutrons and stops the chain reaction while the water removes the residual heat. No makeup water is needed for a week2021.

195 The Three Mile Island Accident and Lessons Learned

Some radioactivity spilled into the containment building, finding its way to the sump. In the meantime, the reactor pressure continued to fall. At 1600 psi, the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) actuated, as it was supposed to. The high-pressure pumps injected makeup water into the reactor vessel. The pressurizer appeared to the operators to be full of water, a condition that would prevent its functioning. They shut off the ECCS and later stopped the main reactor coolant pumps. This severe lack of water caused the core to heat up and become uncovered. Although the main fission power had been cut off, there remained the large amount of residual heat from the decaying fission products. The coolant flow in the core was inadequate to cool the fuel rods and much damage was experienced. Considerable radioactivity, especially of noble gases such as xenon and krypton, along with iodine, was transferred out of the reactor. The sump pumps automatically sent the radioactive water from the...

Establishing Proposal Details

The operating company should also require a balance for each plant utility. The most involved of the utility balances is usually the supply demand steam tabulation showing all levels of steam and condensate and their interactions. The steam balance is almost always required at this stage for any required side studies. The steam balance influences many design parameters, such as boiler size and contingency, treated water makeup rates, blow-down disposal rates, chemicals usage, and surface condenser size.

Crosscorrugated multifunctional membranes

Membranes in a reaction system is a relatively new method of solving various reaction-separation problems. Miscible fluids must be kept apart in order to control the overall reaction rate. Alternatively, the membrane may be designed to be permselective and to allow only a desired species to pass through it, such as the product of an organic synthesis, while holding back another, such as a by-product, and unreacted feed. This type of application may be successfully applied for organic reactions in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, agricultural chemicals, dyes and flavouring ingredients by using the process of phase-transfer catalysis which is discussed by Reuben and Sjoberg(38) . Figure 20.25 shows a representation of the early phase-transfer work of Starks1-39-1, in which 1-chloro-octane was reacted with aqueous cyanide to produce 1-cyano-octane. In a batch reactor, with no phase-transfer agent present, no reaction occurs, although with the addition of a small amount of...

347 Basic principles of radiological protection

Protection against exposure from internal radiation is achieved by preventing the intake of radioactive material through ingestion, inhalation and absorption through skin and skin breaks. Eating, drinking, smoking and application of cosmetics should not be carried out in areas where unsealed radioactive materials are used. The degree of containment necessary depends on the quantity and type of material being handled it may range from simple drip trays through fume cupboards to complete enclosures such as glove boxes. Surgical gloves, laboratory coats and overshoes may need to be worn. A high standard of cleanliness is required to prevent the spread of radioactive contamination and care is necessary in dealing with accidental spills (Figure 3.4.1). Anyone working with unsealed radioactive material should wash and monitor his hands on leaving the working area this is particularly important before meals are taken. Cuts and wounds should be treated immediately and no one should work with...

Tests and Evaluations

T ppm of impurities in the makeup water to the deaerator from the treatment plant obtain average value through lab tests B ppm of concentrated impurities in the boiler drum water (blowdown water) obtain average value through lab tests lb hr MU lb hr of makeup water to the

Equipment Classifications

Evaporative cooling towers are the most commonly applied heat rejection technology for large refrigeration-cycle systems. In a typical cooling tower, a pump delivers water to the top of the tower where it is sprayed, or cascaded, over a series of baffles and agitated by contact with moving air. As a small portion of the water evaporates, it cools the air and the remaining water. The water then collects in a sump at the bottom of the tower and returns to the refrigeration or process heat exchanger for reuse. Often, fan controls regulate airflow to maintain leaving water at the required temperature set point under varying load and ambient conditions. A controlled source of makeup water is also required to offset the evaporation and other losses. Figure 36-4 illustrates basic cooling tower operation.

Solid and Liquid Waste Disposal

Civil Engineering Flowchart

The components of the filter press system are a sludge holding tank, filter press feed pump, filter press, and filtrate return tank with transfer pump (Fig. 18). After the sludge in the zinc phosphating tank settles, it is pumped to the sludge holding tank for further compaction. Any solids-free bath is decanted back to the filtrate return tank. The filtered zinc phosphating bath solution is transferred to the process tank at the rate of 2860 L day (750 gal day), compared to the original 3430 L day (900 gal day), a makeup rate of 570 L day (150 gal day). This procedure is performed daily during the four hours of downtime for the zinc phosphating bath.

37 Source Reduction RED

Perchloroethylene (PCE) is utilized in a degreasing operation and is lost from the process via evaporation from the degreasing tank. This degreasing process has an emission factor (estimated emission rate unit measure of production) of 0.78 lb PCE released per lb PCE entering the degreasing operation. The PCE entering the degreaser is made up of recycled PCE from a solvent recovery operation plus a fresh PCE makeup. The solvent recovery system is 75 efficient, with the 25 reject going offsite for disposal. (Adopted from EPA 560 4-88-002, December 1987, Eliminating Releases and Waste Treatment Efficiencies for the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Form, Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Washington DC).

Corrodent Concentration

The most cost-effective method of reducing salt concentration levels is to dilute water-base drilling fluid with freshwater. Care must be taken to make sure that the makeup water is compatible with the system. The water must not contain high concentrations of undesirable corrodents. Gas Concentration. The principal source of oxygen and some carbon dioxide contamination is the surface part of the circulatory system. Care must be taken to reduce unnecessary aeration of the drilling fluid. Makeup water should be added to the system at the mud flow-line. This will increase the water temperature by the warm, returning, drilling fluid. The increase in water temperature reduces the solubility of gases. Influx of formation fluids can also introduce contaminating gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. Increasing the mud weight to the level to prevent influx can minimize this type of contamination. As mentioned earlier, a degasser unit can be used to degas the...

422 Basic fire technology

The main source of oxygen is from the air which contains 21 oxygen. The level of oxygen must be reduced to below 16 for combustion not to occur or be suppressed. Some substances, such as chlorates and organic peroxides, contain sufficient oxygen in their chemical makeup to sustain combustion without any additional oxygen being available.

Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

Atomic fluorescence spectrometry has two major sources of error. The first is chemical scavenging or de-excitation (termed quenching) of the nonequilibrium excited-state analyte atom population (that in excess of the thermally excited population) before a useful light signal can be emitted. The magnitude of this error signal depends on the concentration of the quenchers in the gas phase, which depends on the chemical makeup of the sample matrix accompanying the analyte element. Consequently. quenching introduces a potential source for matrix effects in AFS not found in AAS.

Modifications Required for Maximum Economy

Recovering the heat content from contaminated condensate by indirect heat exchangers. An example is using an exchanger to heat the boiler makeup water. Returning the contaminated condensate stream to a clarifier or hot lime unit to cleanup for boiler makeup rather than sewering the stream.

819 Dumping Waste Heat

In open system cooling the problem is easier to deal with. Consider the waste-heat recovery from the cooling water from an air compressor. In this case the cooling water is city tap water which flows serially through the water jackets and the intercooler and is then used as makeup water for several heated treatment baths. Should it become necessary to shut off the flow of makeup water to the baths, it would be necessary to valve the cooling water flow to a drain so that the compressor cooling continues with no interruption. Otherwise, the compressor would become overheated and suffer damage.

1233Input Output Point Definition

The third step is to define the input and output points required to achieve the monitoring and control desired, in the most cost-effective or efficient manner. This requires an in-depth appraisal of such items as the equipment list, layout of building spaces, method of building construction, HVAC physical plant makeup and layout, methods of heating and cooling, types of secondary HVAC distribution systems and controls, and the condition of the mechanical equipment and existing controls.

Where to Look For Energy Saving Opportunities

Selecting the raw-water treatment system which has the largest effect on reducing makeup water impurities. This is generally considered applicable only to grass-roots or revamp projects. 4. Recover heat from the hot blowdown water. This is typically accomplished by flashing the water to a low pressure. This produces low-pressure steam (for utilization in an existing steam header) and hot water which may be used to preheat boiler makeup water.

Enclosure Applications

On first examination, the totally enclosed inert gas or air-filled enclosure with a closed ventilating circuit using a gas-to-water heat exchanger would seem the best answer for all locations. However, the cost of this enclosure runs at least 75 more than the drip-proof enclosure. Also, the auxiliary requirements of this type enclosure must be considered. It requires an external cooling water supply of good quality and high relia bility. Where salt water or fresh water with corrosive impurities is used, double-tube heat exchangers are necessary. A cooling water failure alarm and subsequent automatic shutdown feature and enclosure moisture detector and alarm must also be provided. In addition, an external supply of inert gas or instrument air for leakage makeup is required. All factors considered, this type enclosure requires a fairly extensive auxiliary installation. The service factor for this enclosure is normally 1.0.

Value of Steam as a Heat Transfer Medium

The variable cost of steam is primarily a function of fuel cost, boiler efficiency and the difference in enthalpy between incoming feedwater temperatures and exiting steam conditions. There are also a series of ancillary costs for steam, such as makeup water, water treatment, maintenance, blowdown losses, feedwater and condensate pumping, and combustion air supply.

411The Building Committee

The first thing which must be done by the manufacturing firm is to form a building committee. Upper-level management must be represented, preferably with full decisionmaking and budget authority. This representative may not be the company's eventual project manager (PM) for design and construction, but it must be a person who is strong willed, experienced, and capable of maintaining focus on the big picture. His or her primary responsibilities are to ensure that the design feedback supplied to the design firm is the best possible, and that the overall project cost targets are met. All area representatives offer their insights and desires. It is up to this senior manager to resolve conflicts and guide the committee to clear, enforceable agreements and directives. Often this person is responsible for the ultimate building program, whether an outside consultant is hired for the actual preparation of the document or it is done in-house. The size and makeup of the committee will depend on...

1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

Electricity and its associated losses also grew steadily in this sector. Approximately 60 of the energy consumed in the industrial sector is used for manufacturing. The remainder goes to mining, construction, agriculture, fisheries, and forestry 11 . The large consumers of energy in the manufacturing industries, for which the fuel of choice is primarily natural gas, include petroleum and coal products, chemicals and associated products, paper and associated products, and metal industries. Nearly 7 of all energy consumed in the United States is used for nonfuel purposes such as asphalt and road oil for road construction and road conditioning roofing products liquefied petroleum gases for feedstocks at petrochemical plants waxes for packaging, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, inks, and adhesives and gases for chemical and rubber manufacture 11 .

Examples Based on 600 Psig 750F Superheated Steam

Exhaust condition (hd) (back-pressure examples) Turbine efficiency (nj) Turbine efficiency (nj) Boiler efficiency (nB) Steam (mass) flow (ni) Condensate (ha) Condensate (ha) Makeup water Boiler feedwater (hb) In these examples, enthalpy per lbm of steam is rounded to the nearest Btu and cycle efficiencies include consideration of makeup water requirements. Footnotes listed under previous examples (1 through 3) based on operation with 250-psig steam apply to these examples (4 through 6) as well.

Temperature C

If the structure of the polymer backbone is a regular, ordered structure, then the polymer can tightly pack into an ordered crystalline structure, although the material will generally be only semicrystalline. Examples are polyethylene and polypropylene. The exact makeup and details of the polymer backbone will determine whether or not the polymer is capable of crystallizing. This microstructure can be controlled by different synthetic methods. As mentioned previously, the Ziegler-Natta catalysts are capable of controlling the microstructure to produce stereospecific polymers. The types of microstructure that can be obtained for a vinyl polymer are shown in Fig. 1.3. The isotactic and syndiotactic structures are capable of crystallizing because of their highly regular backbone. The atactic form would produce an amorphous material.

Moving 4 Waiting

One approach to layout which shows the outlines of activities or departments is known as a block layout, or block plan. For instance, a block layout for a department store has products assigned to different areas such as Mens, Ladies, Cosmetics, Kitchenware, Appliances, and Toys. It is usual practice to prepare a preliminary block layout before the detailed factory layout is prepared. See Figure 3.3 for an example of an early block layout.


Dense parts and porous coatings from ceramic nanopowders have attracted interest for decades, and many low-cost processing routes are available. In particular, the use of oxide nanopowders in optics, electronic, and cosmetics, (ultraviolet, UV, protection) is established. Several potential applications of metallic nanopowders are investigated and reported. The following two examples are typical for the use of nanopowders for functional materials.


3 The H-90 connection makeup torque based on 56,250 psi stress and other factors as staled in note 1. 4 The 2511 PA.C makeup torque is based on 87,500 psi stress and other factors as stated in note t. *5. The largest diameter shown is the maximum recommended for those full-face connections. If larger

Design Parameters

Solving these problems requires bactericide and or al-gicide additives, blowdown and addition of makeup water, and a system cooling tower. The original design included a cooling tower hookup, if required, together with a chemical feed system. However, makeup water from the

Figure 134

Because of their unique physical makeup, emulsion polymers must be specially formulated to remain stable in the drum, and yet be easily inverted and dissolved in water when it is time to use them, There are two aspects of emulsion polymer stability separation and creaming. To minimize any makeup problems caused by separation or creaming, the drum contents should be thoroughly mixed before using. Although horizontal drum rollers can be used for this purpose, it is best to use a side-bung, angle-entry, air driven, or electric drum mixer. A portable drum mixer can be attached to the side bung for easy mixing and redispersion of the emulsion polymer. Center-bung mounted mixers can also be used but the effect is not as great. A drum should be mixed in this fashion for at least 15 minutes before using.

Static Gas Test

When the seal maximum pressure is such that the gas test must be conducted well below rated discharge pressure, then another test, or substituted test, may be invoked in which the seals are removed. It may require removing the rotor however, with this procedure the joint makeup still remains a problem when the rotor is replaced. However, without the seals, the test described earlier is performed, using the rated discharge pressure rather than the maximum seal pressure. The acceptance test is the same also no leaks should be detected. The latter test should help to still controversy about minor joint leaks on a hydrostatic test, if the casing is proven at rated pressure on gas.

Pipe Nipples

By design, screwed and socket-weld fittings cannot be assembled by placing one fitting directly in contact with another fitting. Screwed fittings are manufactured with threads on the inside of the fitting, and socket-weld fittings have an internal socket that prevents fitting makeup assembly. To facilitate the assembly of screwed and socket-weld fittings, small lengths of pipe called pipe nipples are used between fittings. Pipe nipples can vary in length depending upon the distance required to fabricate the pipe configuration. A close nipple is one that provides the minimum length of pipe between fittings. Remember, screwed and socket-weld fittings have a certain amount of lost pipe due to thread engagement and socket depth. Therefore, each size pipe has a different minimum length for the dimension of a close nipple.

115 Stratification

This is the sample selection method used when the whole population, or lot, is made up of a complex set of different characteristics, e.g. region, income, age, race, sex, education. In these cases the sample must be very carefully drawn in proportions which represent the makeup of the population.


Nickel may be reclaimed from the rinse tank by evaporation, and the concentrated solution returned to plating. The condensate is recovered and reused as makeup to the rinse system. Ion exchangers are also used for the recovery of nickel and water. The rinse water is passed through cation and anion exchangers in series, with deionized water recycled into the rinse tanks. The cation exchanger, which removes the nickel ions, is periodically regenerated with acid. The regenerating solution containing the concentrated nickel salts can then be treated and reused in plating operations.

11344 Results

The Primary LOCA sequences. result from expansion joint breaks (51 59) and large break LOCAs (8 59). Response to LOCAs in the primary system involves shutdown, emergency injection makeup of lost coolant inventory, leak control and or isolation, water removal from the building to avoid flooding of pumps, and direct core cooling in the event of pump flooding.

Polymer Chemistry

The newest product form for flocculants is the emulsion. This polymer is in the form of small droplets suspended in a hydrocarbon and surfactant carrier. Emulsion polymers must first be activated, or inverted, in water before they can be applied. These require a special polymer makeup and feeding system.

Emulsion Polymers

When an emulsion polymer is added to water, the first thing that occurs is dispersion of the emulsion mass into discreet droplets (Figure 13-2). Microscopic examination reveals a small droplet of oil containing thousands of Liny particles of poly-mer-in-water. This oil droplet becomes surrounded by the bulk water in the makeup tank.

Unit Number

The learning curve trend is a function of many variables. Factors which may affect curve slope include characteristics of the type of work to be done, program variations, and uncontrolled external factors. One of the more significant factors to consider in developing a cost estimate for manufacturing is the type of work. Different manufacturing processes can have different slopes. High-speed machining has a slope trend unlike that of conventional machining. Various assembly methods, wire harness fabrication, electronic assembly and wiring, final assembly, and testing all have different learning curve slopes. Consider the makeup of the end product with respect to different manufacturing processes in


The most common isotope has atomic weight 208.98. A metallic element. In pure form it is pinkish-white and brittle. Exhibits magnetoresistive properties. Bismuth is an extremely poor conductor of heat and electricity. When a sample of the element is subjected to a magnetic field, its electrical conductivity decreases. Used in fuses, thermocouples, thermocouple type meters, and nuclear reactors. Also used in skin cosmetics. Compounds of this element are used in medicine for the relief of mild gastrointestinal upset. Alloys containing bismuth have low melting points, and are used in fire-detection systems. The element is found pure in nature, but industrially it is obtained from the refining of metals.


The present and growing large market for plastics in building and construction is principally due to its suitability in different internal and external environments. The versatility of different plastics to exist in different environments permits the ability for plastics to be maintenance-free when compared to the more conventional and older materials such as wood. So it is said (factual) if wood did not have its excellent record of performances and costs for many centuries, based on present laws and regulations they could not be used. They burn, rot, etc. Regardless it would be ridiculous not to use wood. The different plastics inherendy have superior properties that make them useful in other markets such as high strength and stiffness, durability, performances, insulation, cosmetics, etc. so eventually their use in building and construction will expand.

Batch Pickling

In one plant that batch pickles bar stock, the makeup solution contains 14 to 15 g 100 mL sulfuric acid and is operated at 60 C (140 F) until the concentration of acid drops to about 7 g 100 mL. Fresh acid is added to increase the concentration to about 12 g 100 mL, and the bath is operated until the concentration decreases to about 6 g 100 mL. The temperature is gradually increased during this period to about 68 C (155 F). Inhibitors are used at concentrations up to 0.5 vol of the free acid present. When the iron content in solution reaches about 8 g 100 mL, the solution is no longer used. Solutions containing sulfuric acid and iron can either be diverted to the pickling of other material or discarded when the iron content reaches 5 to 7 wt . Nitric-hydrofluoric acid solutions are discarded when the iron content reaches 5 wt , whereas nitric acid solutions are discarded when iron reaches 2 wt . The caustic permanganate solution (Tables 5 and 6) is desludged every 3 to 5 mo, and...

Hammer Mills

Hammer Mills without Internal Air Classifiers The Mikro-Pulverizer (Fig. 20-46) (Hosokawa Micron Powder Systems Div.) is a close-clearance, screen discharge, high-speed, controlled sealed-feed hammer mill used for a wide range of nonabrasive materials, the major applications being sugar, carbon black, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, plastics, dyestuffs, dry colors, and cosmetics. For performance see Table 20-21. Speeds, types of hammers, feed devices, housing variations, and perforations of screens are all varied to fit applications, with the result that finenesses and character of grind cover a wide range. Some of the grinds are as fine as 99.9 percent through a 325-mesh screen. Feed material should usually be down to 4 cm (1a in) or finer. If feed is larger, an auxiliary crusher may be required, preferably as a separate unit, because synchronization is difficult since the crusher has larger capacities than the pulverizer. Tie-in is possible with careful regulation of relative speeds of...

Wetted Flocculant

After dispersing the solid flocculant, wastewater treatment facilities need only use minimum agitation to assure a uniform solution concentration. A low flow of compressed air or a mechanical mixer can be used. Mechanical mixers or air spargers can be used for agitation during solution preparation. Dissolving dry flocculants does not require violent agitation by high-speed mechanical mixers the mixing equipment need only generate a moderate rolling action throughout the makeup tank. Figure 7.34.10 shows a typical flocculant feed system using a manual disperser.


Objectives Equipment in which solid materials are mixed may be used for a number of operations. Blending of ingredients may be the main objective, as, for example, in the preparation of feeds, insecticides, fertilizer, glass batches, packaged foods, and cosmetics. Other objectives may include cooling or heating such as in the cooling of limestone or sugar or the preheating of plastic prior to calendering. Drying or roasting of the solids is sometimes desired. In some applications, such as polymerization of plastics, catalyst manufacture, or the preparation of cereal products, the solids mixture may be reacted. 9. Moisture or liquid content of solids. Often a small amount of liquid is added for dust reduction or special requirements (such as oils for cosmetics). The resultant material may still have the appearance of a dry solid rather than a paste.

1512 Cables

In structural applications, cable is generally used in a generic sense to indicate a flexible tension member. Several types of cables are available for use in cable-supported bridges. The form or configuration of a cable depends on its makeup it can be composed of parallel bars, parallel wires, parallel strands or ropes, or locked-coil strands (Fig. 15.30). Parallel bars are not used for suspension bridges because of the curvature requirements at the pylon saddles. Nor are they used in cable-stayed bridges where a saddle is employed at the pylon, but they have been utilized in a stay where it terminates and is anchored at the pylon.

Watertube Boilers

Water Tube Boiler Inside View Photos

Most common systems are illustrated in Figure 7-16. These systems are typically classified as either recirculating or once-through. In recirculating systems, water is only partially evaporated into steam in the boiler tubes. The residual water, plus the makeup water supply, are then recirculated to the boiler tube inlet for further heating and steam generation. Once-through systems provide for continuous evaporation of slightly subcooled water to 100 steam without steam-water separation.

1623 Motivation

Every supervisor knows that some people are easier to motivate than others. Why Are some people simply born more motivated than others No person is exactly like another. Each individual has a unique personality and makeup. Because people are different, different factors are required to motivate different people. Not all employees expect or want the same things from their jobs. People work for different reasons. Some work because they have to work they need money to pay bills. Others work because they want something to occupy their time. Still others work so they can have a career and its related satisfactions. Because they work for different reasons, different factors are required to motivate employees.

Disposal Issues

If a spent fluid is determined to be a hazardous waste, the effects include increases in disposal, administrative, labor, and insurance expenses. The amount of paperwork increases, due to requirements for use of a manifest system, labeling, reporting, and recordkeeping, and the liability exposure of the waste generator increases. One solution that helps minimize the impact of all these costs is to set up a recycling program that extends the life of the fluid, therefore decreasing the amount of environmental pollution and eliminating some of the cost, paperwork, and liability. The fluid is periodically removed from the machine, and the tramp oil and metal fines are removed from the dirty fluid. Fresh fluid is then added as makeup to the recycled fluid, and the clean mixture goes back into the machine. The recycling process reduces the frequency with which the fluid, which can be as much as 98 water, must be hauled away. This can save a substantial amount,...


Tained for satisfactory boiler performance, a significant quantity of heat is removed from the boiler. A large amount of the heat in the blowdown is recoverable by using a two-stage heat-recovery system as shown in Figure 5.16 before discharging to the sewer. In this system, blowdown lines from each boiler discharge into a common flash tank. The flashed steam may be tied into an existing header, used directly by process, or used in the deaera-tor. The remaining hot water may be used to preheat makeup water to the deaerator or preheat other process streams. enthalpy of liquid leaving the flash tank (using Figure 5.17, curve A, at the flash tank pressure) enthalpy of liquid leaving the heat exchanger using Figure 5.17, curve C for planning purposes, a 30 to 40 F approach temperature (condensate discharge to makeup water temperature) may be used

Water Usage

The total water makeup rate (WMR) requirement for a cooling tower is the sum of losses from evaporation (E), blowdown (B), and drift (D), a term that refers to liquid droplets entrained in the exhaust air stream. All of the lost and removed water must be replenished with fresh makeup water. Dissolved and suspended solids entering the system are not removed in the process of evaporation therefore, the concentration of these impurities can rapidly increase in operating cooling towers. Blowdown requirements for a given system are based on maintaining the concentration of contaminants below maximum acceptable levels. The ratio of allowable concentration of impurities to the concentration existing in entering makeup water is referred to as cycles of concentration (C). Excluding consideration of drift, required blowdown rates can be determined by the following formula


Example Determine the effects on blowdown of using a sodium zeolite softener producing a water quality of 350 ppm solids and of using a demineralization unit producing a water quality of 5 ppm solids. The makeup water rate is 30 and the allowable drum solids level is 3000 ppm.

Sludge Conditioning

Elutriation is the washing of suspended sludge held in suspension by air or stirring. It reduces alkalinity and makes the sludge more filterable. Single and multitank (countercurrent) elutriation are both used. The single-tank system uses repeated sludge washing, whereas in the coun-tercurrent system, fresh wash water is added to the last sludge tank. The wash water overflow from the last-stage tank furnishes the wash for the previous tank. Although the countercurrent system requires additional tanks and piping, it uses less makeup wash water.

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