The vaporized material can be transported through a vacuum, gas, or plasma. The vacuum environment allows control of the contamination in the ambient environment to any desired level. The gaseous environment may thermalize energetic particles and cause vapor phase nucleation, depending on the gas density (see the article "Vacuum Deposition, Reactive Evaporation, and Gas Evaporation" in this Volume). The plasma environment "activates" reactive species, making them more chemically reactive.

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