References cited in this section

21. P.H. Holloway, Gold/Chromium Metallization for Electronic Devices, Solid State Technol., Vol 23 (No. 2), 1980, p 109, and references therein

26. D.M. Mattox, Thin Film Adhesion and Adhesive Failure--A Perspective, ASTM Proc. Conf. Adhesion Measurement of Thin Films, Thick Films and Bulk Coatings, STP 640, ASTM, 1978, p 54

28. E. Philofsky, Intermetallic Formation in Gold Aluminum Systems, Solid State Electronics, Vol 13 (No. 10), 1970, p 1391

31. G.G. Fuller and K.L. Mittal, Ed., Opportunities and Research Needs in Adhesion Science and Technology, National Science Foundation Workshop on Adhesion, 14-16 Oct 1987 (Lake Tahoe, CA), Hitex Publication, 1988

39. RE. Cuthrell, D.M. Mattox, C.R. Peeples, PL. Dreike, and K.P. Lamppa, Residual Stress, Stress Anisotropy, Stress Control and Resistivity in Post Cathode Magnetron Sputter-Deposited Molybdenum Films, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, Vol 6, 1988, p 2914

54. F.G. Yost, D.E. Amos, and A.D. Romig, Stress Driven Diffusion Voiding of Aluminum Conductor Lines, Proc. IEEE/IRPS '89, 1989, p 193

63. M. Ohring, The Material Science of Thin Films, Academic Press, 1991, and references therein

64. H. Windischmann, Intrinsic Stress in Sputter-Deposited Thin Films, Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci., Vol 17 (No. 6), 1992, p 547

65. R. Pestrong, Nature's Angles, Pacific Discovery--Calif. Academy of Sciences, Vol 44 (No. 3), Summer 1991, p 28

66. S.M. Wiederhorn and L.H. Bolz, Stress Corrosion and Static Fatigue of Glass, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., Vol 53, 1970, p 543

67. D.M. Mattox, Particle Bombardment Effects on Thin Film Deposition: A Review, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, Vol 7 (No. 3), 1989, p 1105, and references therein

68. M.D. Thouless, The Role of Fracture Mechanics in Adhesion, Adhesion in Solids, Symp. Proc., Vol 119, D.M. Mattox, J.E.E. Baglin, C. Batich, and R. Gottschall, Ed., Materials Research Society, p 51

69. T.S. Oh, R.M. Cannon, and R.O. Ritchie, Subcritical Crack Growth along Ceramic-Metal Interfaces, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., Vol 70, 1987, p C352

70. R.E. Cuthrell, Influence of Hydrogen on the Deformation and Fracture of the Near Surface Region of Solids: Proposed Origin of the Rehbinder-Westwood Effect, J. Mater. Sci., Vol 14, 1979, p 6123

71. V.D. Venables, Adhesion and Durability of Metal-Polymer Bonds: A Review, J. Mater. Sci., Vol 19, 1984, p 2431

72. J.T. Prater and R.W. Moss, Effect of the Coating Structure on the Adherence of Sputter-Deposited Oxide Coatings, Thin Solid Films, Vol 107, 1983, p 455

73. A.H.F. Muggleton, Deposition Techniques for Preparation of Thin Film Nuclear Targets: Invited Review, Vacuum, Vol 37, 1987, p 785

74. M. Simpson, P. Smith, and G.A. Dederski, Atomic Layer Epitaxy: State of the Art Review, Surf. Eng., Vol 3, 1987, p 343

75. D.W. Skelly and L.A. Grunke, Significant Improvement in Step Coverage using Bias Sputtered Aluminum, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, Vol 4 (No. 3), 1986, p 457

76. L. Berenbaum and R. Rosenberg, Electromigration Damage in Al-Cu Thin Films, IEEE/IRPS, 1971, p 136

77. J.G. Ryan, J.B. Riendeau, S.E. Shore, G.J. Slusser, D.C. Beyar, D.P. Bouldin, and T.D. Sullivan, The Effects of Alloying on Stress Induced Void Formation in Aluminum Based Metallizations, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, Vol 8 (No. 3), 1990, p 1474

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