Pumps are used in electroless nickel plating systems for solution transfer and filtration. The following factors should be considered when selecting pumps for electroless nickel plating systems:

• Operating temperature of the plating solution, usually 85 to 95 °C (185 to 205 °F)

• Chemicals being handled in both the electroless nickel plating solution and the 30% nitric acid solution used for passivation

• Volume flow rate (liters per minute) required to allow the total tank volume to be filtered approximately ten times each hour

Two materials, CPVC plastic and type 304 stainless steel, have been proven to be satisfactory for electroless nickel pumps. CPVC plastic is more resistant to plate out than stainless steel and is less expensive. However, large plastic pumps lack the capacity and mechanical strength needed to provide proper filtration in electroless nickel systems. Accordingly, plastic pumps are used for flow rates less than 300 L/min (80 gal/min), whereas stainless steel is used for higher flow applications.

Vertical Pumps. Vertical centrifugal pumps are now the most commonly used pumps for electroless nickel systems. These pumps can be mounted so only the impeller is below the solution level and shaft seals are not required. Consequently, maintenance of this pump is minimized. Some vertical pumps can also be mounted outside the tank, providing the maximum area for plating.

With CPVC plastic pumps, the impeller should be machined or molded; glued impellers should not be used. All gaskets and O-rings for electroless nickel systems should be fluorocarbon rubber.

The velocity of the solution through the pump should be at least 2 1 m/s (8 ft/min) to prevent the solution from plating out on the pump housing, especially when stainless steel is used. To accomplish this, a pump speed of 1750 rev/min is required.

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