Process Description

Table 1 shows some typical iron plating bath parameters. It should be noted that the addition of various organic additives can change the properties of the deposit to a high degree. These are addressed in the Section "Properties of the Deposited Materials and Modified Surfaces" in this article.

Table 1 Typical iron plating solutions

Bath type

Composition

pH

Temperature,

Current density

°C

Component

g/L

Molarity

°C

A/m2

A/ft2

Sulfate

Fe++

48

0.86

2.8-3.5

32-65

215-430

20-40

(a)

240

0.86

Double sulfate

Fe++

36-51

0.64-0.92

2.5-3.5

24-65

215-645

20-60

(b)

250-400

0.64-1.2

Chloride

Fe++

84-125

1.5-2.25

0.5-1.0

85 min

215-1075

20-100

(c)

300-450

1.5-2.25

(d)

300

2.7

Sulfate-chloride

Fe++

60

1.08

2.5-3.5

27-70

215-540

20-50

(a)

250

0.9

(c)

36

0.18

(e)

20

0.37

Fluoborate

Fe++

55

1

3.0-3.5

57-63

430-970

40-90

(f)

227

1

(g)

10

0.17

Sulfamate

Fe++

75

1.35

2.5-3.5

60 max

215-430

20-40

(h)

30-38

0.25-0.32

Sulfonate

Fe++

150

2.7

1.2-1.8

60-82

430-860

40-80

(g)

50

0.81

(i)

275

2.7

(a) Ferrous sulfate (7-hydrate).

(b) Ferrous ammonium sulfate (6-hydrate).

(c) Ferrous chloride (4-hydrate).

(d) Calcium chloride.

(e) Ammonium chloride.

(f) Ferrous fluoborate.

(g) Sodium chloride.

(h) Ammonium sulfamate.

(i) Ferrous sulfonate

In addition, there are many baths that have been reported for both the electrolytic and electroless deposition of iron alloys. Alloys are attracting more interest as replacements for nickel, but this chapter will address only electrodeposited pure iron deposits.

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