Plating in Fluoborate Baths

Copper fluoborate and fluoboric acid are the primary constituents of the copper fluoborate electrolyte. The metal ions are furnished by the copper fluoborate, which is more soluble than copper sulfate used in the sulfate bath, and the anode current density is not critical. Therefore, the metal-ion concentration in the fluoborate bath can be more than twice that in the copper sulfate solution, and this permits higher cathode current densities. The cupric salts in the fluoborate bath are highly ionized, except for small amounts of less ionized complex salts formed with certain addition agents.

In the copper fluoborate bath, the anode current density can be as high as 40 A/dm2 (400 A/ft2) without excessive anode polarization. The effect of temperature changes on the grain structure and surface smoothness of deposits plated from the copper fluoborate bath is less significant than the effect of changes in cathode current density.

Agitation is preferred for the fluoborate bath, although acceptable deposits 25 ^m (1 mil) thick have been produced in a high-concentration bath without agitation and with current density maintained at 35 A/dm2 (350 A/ft2). When agitation is used, a low-concentration bath operated at a current density of 4 to 5 A/dm2 (40 to 50 A/ft2) is preferred.

Although fluoborate baths containing no additives can produce dense and smooth deposits up to 500 ^m (20 mils) thick, additives may be used to aid in the deposition of brighter or more uniform coatings or to assist in control of plating conditions. Although deposits from fluoborate baths are easily buffed to a high luster, brighteners of acetyl thiourea can be added to the electrolyte to produce bright coatings. The addition of free acid to the bath increases solution conductivity, reduces anode and cathode polarization, and prevents the precipitation of basic salts. Hard deposits and minimum edge effects result when molasses (1 mL/L, or 0.1 fluid oz/gal) is added to the electrolyte. If the pH of these baths exceeds 1.7, deposits become dull, dark, and brittle.

The resistivity of fluoborate electrolytes is reduced if the concentration of fluoboric acid exceeds 15 g/L (2 oz/gal) or if the concentration of copper fluoborate exceeds 220 g/L (29 oz/gal). In the fluoborate bath, the metal-ion concentration can be more than double that in a copper sulfate solution containing 50 to 75 g/L (6.7 to 10 oz/gal) of sulfuric acid.

In the fluoborate electrolytes, silver, gold, arsenic, and antimony may co-deposit with copper, but the effects of such impurities in this electrolyte have not been reported. Lead is the only metallic impurity known to interfere with the deposition of ductile copper deposits. Additions of sulfuric acid precipitate the lead. As with the sulfate electrolytes, organic impurities sometimes cause deposits to be brittle or discolored. They can be removed by treating the bath with activated carbon

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