Introduction

PORCELAIN ENAMELS are glass coatings applied primarily to products or parts made of sheet steel, cast iron, or aluminum to improve appearance and to protect the metal surface. Porcelain enamels are distinguished from other ceramic coatings on metallic substrates by their predominantly vitreous nature and the types of applications for which they are used. These coatings are differentiated from paint by their inorganic composition and coating properties. They are fused to the metallic substrate at temperatures above 425 °C (800 °F) during the firing process.

The most common applications for porcelain enamels are major appliances, water heater tanks, sanitary ware, and cookware. In addition, porcelain enamels are used in a wide variety of coating applications, including chemical processing vessels, agricultural storage tanks, piping, pump components, and barbecue grills. They also are used for coatings on architectural panels, signage, specially executed murals, and substrates for microcircuitry. Porcelain enamels are selected for products or components where there is a need for one or more special service requirements that porcelain enamel can provide. These include chemical resistance, corrosion protection, weather resistance, abrasion resistance, specific mechanical or electrical properties, appearance or color needs, cleanability, heat resistance, or thermal shock capability.

Note

* John C. Oliver, Consultant to the Porcelain Enamel Institute, Inc. (Project Chairman); Douglas D. Giese, G.E. Appliances (Co-Chairman); Jeffrey F. Wright, Ferro Corp. (Co-Chairman); Ronald L. Allen, Ronalco, Inc.; Terry Conrad, Amana/Raytheon Corp.; John K. Cook, Chi-Vit Corp.; Ted Furr, Bethlehem Steel Corp.; Andrew Gordon, U.S. Steel, USX Corp.; Bernard L. Hall, Jr., JennAir/Maytag Co.; Michael Horton, Industrial Heating and Finishing Co.; William Huyser, Mapes & Sprowl Steel, Ltd.; Robert J. Long, American Porcelain Enamel Co.; Anthony R. Mazzuca, Miles, Inc.; Herbert Oliveira, Nordson Corp.; Arnold Preban, Inland Steel Co.; Charles R. Rarey, LTV Steel Co.; Donald R. Sauder, Porcelain Enamel Institute, Inc.; Narayan M. Sedalia, Whirlpool Corp.; Jeffrey Sellins, Magic Chef/Maytag Co.; Lester N. Smith, Porcelain Consultants, Inc.; Larry L. Steele, Armco Steel Corp.; Ted J. Wolowicz, G.E. Appliances

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