Graded Properties

There are a number of effects that lead to changes of film properties with thickness (graded properties). As previously discussed, the film growth mode is continually changing with thickness in the early stages of growth, particularly on rough surfaces. The initial deposition may have reacted with residual gases, giving a changing composition with thickness. In addition, the initially deposited material is being heated while the film is growing, thus allowing annealing during growth. The degree of this annealing differs with deposition time, deposition rate, thickness, and the thermal transport properties of the film and substrate material.

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