Wipe on/wipe off cleaning requires only the simplest equipment. Acid-resistant pails and protective clothing, and common mops, brushes, and wiping cloths are all that is needed.

Immersion systems require equipment varying from earthen crocks for hand dipping at room temperature to fully automated systems using heat and ultrasonic or electrolytic assistance. The construction for an acid tank is shown in Fig. 1. Tanks for sulfuric acid may be lined with natural rubber and acid-resistant red shale or carbon brick joined with silica-filled hot poured sulfur cement. Liners or freestanding fabricated tanks of polypropylene are also used. Tanks intended to contain nitric or hydrofluoric acids may be lined with polyvinyl chloride and carbon brick joined with carbon-filled hot poured sulfur cement. Carbon brick liners are not needed for nitric acid, but they are usually used to contain hydrofluoric acid.

Fig. 1 Section of an acid cleaning tank. Inner lining of brick acts only as a thermal shield and as a protection against mechanical damage to the corrosion-resistant polyvinyl chloride or rubber membrane.

If the cleaning operation uses only acid solutions, an immersion installation would consist of an immersion tank for the acid solution, capable of being heated to 82 °C (180 °F), two rinse tanks for flowing cold water, and drying facilities, either convection or infrared.

Various modifications can be made for specific conditions. If parts are precleaned in alkaline solutions, two water rinse tanks should precede the acid cleaning tank. One of these two rinses may be a still tank containing dilute chromic acid. The final may be a heated still tank containing dilute chromic acid or a hot water tank (up to 82 °C, or 180 °F). One advantage in using heat in the final rinse is that subsequent drying is accelerated.

Various degrees of automation are feasible with immersion systems. Automated cleaning of racked parts can be applied to immersion systems by using an overhead monorail that raises and lowers racks according to a predetermined cycle.

Electrolytic acid cleaning tanks must be constructed to resist acids. Venting is recommended and usually required; otherwise, these tanks are no different from tanks used for electrolytic alkaline cleaning. A typical electrolytic cleaning tank is shown in the article on alkaline cleaning. Various types of auxiliary equipment may be used for removing fumes from an electrolytic tank. Electrodes are preferably made of lead.

Rinse tanks should be as small as is compatible with easy handling of the largest load to be rinsed, yet allow for adequate overflow to minimize contamination. For a given overflow rate, smaller tanks allow better mixing and faster rinsing of impurities. If a series of rinse tanks is used, all should be uniform in size for simple flow rate control.

Polyvinyl chloride is a proven material for rinse tanks. Polypropylene, which can withstand higher temperatures than polyvinyl chloride, has also been used, as well as polyester, rubber, brick, lead, and plain carbon steel coated with protective paint. Stainless steel can be used in rinse tanks where chloride solutions are not used. Chlorides cause pitting of stainless steel, especially if tanks are used intermittently.

Rinse tanks can be equipped with automatic controls that flush tanks when impurities reach an established level, as monitored by continuous measurement of the electrical conductivity.

Spray systems are designed with special features for high-production acid cleaning. The number of stations varies, but a five-stage system is usually used for cleaning and phosphating parts such as large stampings. The first stage is acid cleaning (usually phosphoric and ethylene glycol monobutyl ether) and is followed by a spray rinse followed by a phosphating stage. The process is completed by using either two successive stages of unheated water rinsing or one stage of unheated water and one of unheated or heated mild chromic acid solution. Parts are conveyed from stage to stage singly on a belt or by using an overhead monorail system with parts hanging singly or on racks.

Heating Equipment. Acid cleaners are rarely heated above 82 °C (180 °F). Improved detergent systems in recent years have permitted a much wider range of work to be acid cleaned at room temperature with consequent energy savings, but removal of rust or stubborn soils such as buffing compounds usually benefits from the application of heat. The temperature range most frequently used when acid cleaners are heated is 60 to 71 °C (140 to 160 °F).

Drying is usually accomplished by heated forced air. However, temperatures higher than about 100 °C (212 °F) are generally not used, for economic reasons. Infrared dryers may be used if controlled to proper operating temperature.

Acid Attack and Sludge Formation. In phosphoric acid cleaning and coating systems, acid attack on work is minor, although some metal is dissolved. Iron phosphate sludge is a natural byproduct of cleaning and coating with phosphoric acid-based chemicals. The amount of phosphate compounds in the sludge, as well as the severity of acid attack on the work, depends on the temperature and acid concentration.

Acid attack on the major items of equipment is almost negligible. For example, tanks and pipes used in one high-production installation have not been replaced during the first 16 years of operation and are still in serviceable condition. The tanks and pipes for this installation were made of low-carbon steel; pumps and nozzles were made of stainless steel. Most equipment deterioration is caused by erosion on parts such as pump impellers, riser pipe elbows, tees, and nipples. Some attack occurs initially, but once the steel surface has become coated with phosphate, attack is substantially reduced. Also, deposits of scale serve as inhibitors of acid attack and further protect the metal from the acid. The major cause for replacing parts such as risers and nozzles is clogging by sludge and scale.

In a spray system, sludge is usually removed by filters. In immersion systems, the sludge accumulated at the bottom of the tank is usually shoveled out after most of the still-usable solution has been removed (decanted). A sludge pan is often helpful. Such a pan covers the entire bottom of the tank except for small areas at the edges. This permits easy removal. The pan is usually 75 to 125 mm (3 to 5 in.) deep. Rods with hooks extending above the solution level allow the pan to be lifted to remove sludge. Thus, the solution need not be decanted, downtime is minimized, and labor is saved.

Handling and Conveying. Parts such as nuts and bolts are most commonly cleaned in rotating barrels. However, if barrel equipment is not available, such parts can be cleaned in baskets. Conveyance may be by hand, by lift systems, by belt when a spray is used, or by a combination of these systems. Small parts that cannot be tumbled in barrels may be placed in wire baskets, racked for immersing or spraying, or placed singly on belts in a spray system.

Racks, hooks, and baskets are usually made of a metal that will resist acids. Types 304, 316, 316L, and 347 stainless steel are successful for these components. Where racks or hooks travel through a series of cleaning, phosphating, and painting systems, the racks are continually recoated, making low-carbon steel an acceptable rack material. A rack used for cleaning and phosphating of small Stampings, such as doors for automobile glove compartments, is illustrated in Fig. 2. Large components are usually hung singly on hooks and transported by an overhead monorail. Figure 3 illustrates an arrangement for carrying truck cabs through a five-stage spray cleaning installation.

Fig. 2 Rack used for cleaning and phosphate coating small stampings
Fig. 3 Arrangement for conveying truck cabs through a five-stage spray cleaning installation Control of Process Variables

Agitation, operating temperature, acid concentration, solution contamination, and rinsing are the principal variables that affect efficiency and quality in acid cleaning.

Agitation, either of the solution or the work-pieces, is usually necessary in all systems. In wipe on/wipe off methods, agitation is under direct control of an operator. In spray systems, agitation is provided by the impingement of the solution on the workpieces, and the impingement is basically controlled by the pressure. Pressures used in spray systems are commonly 100 to 170 kPa (15 to 25 psi), measured at the pump. Pressures up to 280 kPa (40 psi) are sometimes used for removing tenacious soils. For cleaning complex parts, some experimentation is usually required in adjusting the nozzles to achieve a spray pattern that reaches cavities and crevices.

Immersion systems use a variety of methods for agitation. In smaller production quantities, parts contained in baskets are hand agitated by raising, lowering, and turning. Underwater air jets or mechanical propellers are also effective for agitation in cleaning tanks, and they can decrease the soaking period. In automated immersion systems, the forward motion of parts often provides sufficient agitation. However, this can be enhanced if necessary by simultaneously agitating the solution. In barrel cleaning, agitation of both work and solution is provided by the rotation of the barrel.

Ultrasonic cleaning methods can be applied to acid cleaners in the same manner as is done with other cleaning methods. Because initial cost and maintenance of ultrasonic equipment is high, this form of energy is used only when simpler methods fail to achieve satisfactory cleaning, either because the soil is extremely difficult to remove or because the shape of the workpiece is complex.

Electrolytic cleaning provides agitation from gas evolution, which produces a scrubbing action.

Operating Temperature. Although the efficiency of soil removal increases as temperature increases, a significant amount of acid cleaning is done in unheated solutions, because heated solutions may present the following disadvantages:

• Attack on workpieces increases with temperature Cleaners deteriorate or are used up more rapidly, in part because of dissolved metal

• Surfaces emerging from hot acid solutions are likely to dry and become streaked before they are rinsed

• The life of the tanks and other equipment decreases as operating temperature is increased

As mentioned previously, when acid solutions are heated, temperatures ranging from 60 to 70 °C (140 to 160 °F) are most frequently used. Higher temperatures (up to 80 °C, or 180 °F) are sometimes required to remove soils such as drawing compounds that contain high-melting waxes or greases. In barrel cleaning with solutions of acid salt, temperatures up to 95 °C (200 °F) are sometimes used, but these cleaners are relatively mild so that problems of attack on workpieces and equipment are not great. Maintenance of temperature within ±3 °C (±5 °F) usually provides adequate reproducibility.

Control of cleaner composition is necessary for consistently satisfactory results. Depletion of cleaner by its reaction with workpieces or equipment, dragout, drag-in of alkali or other contaiminants, and decomposition of the cleaner constituents are factors that affect cleaner life.

Chemical analysis using simple titrations for acid and metal content permit control of solution composition. Visual inspection of processed workpieces also indicates condition of the cleaner. In a new installation, when a new solution is being used, or when a different soil is being removed, the solution should be checked every hour until the required frequency of testing is established.

Control of rinsing is necessary for consistently good results. Cold water is adequate for most purposes except when high-melting waxes and greases are being removed. Residues of such soils may set from cold water rinsing. An initial rinse with demineralized water at 70 to 82 °C (160 to 180 °F) is often used when removing these soils. Rinsing qualities of water can be greatly improved by adding a wetting agent at a low concentration. Agitation during rinsing is important and is achieved by the same means used with cleaning solutions.

Rinsing is expensive, but cost can be minimized by using tanks as small as possible, tanks of uniform size if in a series, automatic flush control of contamination limit, and using counterflow rinse tanks.

Sludge buildup is proportional to the amount and type of soils entering the system. Even though sludge buildup does not directly impair the efficiency of an immersion system, a large amount of sludge should not be allowed to accumulate because it may foul heating or control equipment. In spray systems, good filtration and screening are required to prevent fouling of nozzles and related equipment.

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