45N Vodjdani These de Doctorate 3e Cycle University Paris XI PhD dissertation 1982

46. W.T. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol 45, 1984, p 11 Fundamentals of CVD

The fundamental processes that occur during crystal growth are commonly categorized into thermodynamic and kinetic components. Thermodynamics determine the driving force behind the overall growth process, whereas kinetics define the rates at which the various processes occur. Figure 2 depicts the fundamental processes involved in MOCVD. A study of the dependence of a macroscopic quantity, such as growth rate, on external parameters, such as substrate temperature and input precursor (source) flow rates, provides insight into the overall growth mechanism.

Fig. 2 Fundamental processes involved in metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Source: Ref 47 Thermodynamics

The goal of thermodynamics is to define the composition of various phases in an equilibrium system at a constant temperature and pressure. Although many aspects of MOCVD growth are nonequilibrium, thermodynamics limits the possible outcomes. Thermodynamics can be used to describe the driving force for epitaxy and to specify the maximum growth rate. In addition, thermodynamic calculations often give an accurate account of the composition of multicomponent solids grown by MOCVD.

Equilibrium is the state that minimizes the Gibbs free energy, G, of the system:

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