25C Buchal Nucl Instrum and Methods in Phys Res Vol 68 No 1 1992 p 355 Health and Safety

Ion implantation of gaseous elements, whether using conventional ion implantation or the PSII process, does not involve the use of any toxic or hazardous material and produces no effluent that requires special precautions. Semiconductor applications typically do use toxic gases for production of ion beams, and chlorine gas is sometimes used for producing heavy metal ion beams. However, implanters using a MEVVA, high-temperature, or sputtering heavy ion source do not require the use of toxic gases. The use of high voltages for ion acceleration and ion beam handling requires adequate training of personnel and proper design of equipment for shock protection and reduction of x-ray levels to within acceptable limits.

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