1 DM Mattox Surface Preparation for Film and Coating Deposition Processes Chapter 3 Deposition

Processes for Films and Coating, 2nd ed., R. Bunshah, Ed., Noyes Publications, 1994 Atomistic Film Growth

Atomistic film growth occurs as a result of the condensation of atoms ("adatoms") on a surface. The stages of film formation are:

1. Vaporization of the material (adatoms) to be deposited

2. Transport of the material to the substrate

3. Condensation and nucleation of the adatoms

4. Nuclei growth

5. Interface formation

6. Film growth--nucleation and reaction with previously deposited material

7. Changes in structure during the deposition process—interface and film

8. Postdeposition changes due to postdeposition treatments, exposure to the ambient, subsequent processing steps, in-storage changes, or in-service changes

All of these stages are important in determining the properties of the deposited film material (Ref 2, 3, 4, 5). Vaporization

In physical vapor deposition, vapors can be formed by thermal and nonthermal techniques. Thermal techniques require heating, such as vacuum evaporation and sublimation (see the article "Vacuum Deposition, Reactive Evaporation, and Gas Evaporation" in this Volume). Nonthermal vaporization includes sputtering (see the article "Sputter Deposition" in this Volume), arc vaporization, laser ablation, and others.

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