Robert Akid

Materials Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, Sheffield, United Kingdom S1 1WB

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Economic Aspects of Corrosion

11.2.1 Cost of Corrosion

11.2.2 Learning from the Past

11.3 Corrosion Processes

11.3.1 Basic Concepts

11.3.1.1 Definitions

11.3.1.2 Formation of Corrosion Cells

11.3.2 Thermodynamic Aspects

11.3.3 Kinetics (Rates) of Corrosion

11.3.3.1 Mixed-Potential Theory and Evans Diagrams

11.3.3.2 Determination of Corrosion Rate

11.4 Factors Affecting the Rate of Corrosion

11.4.1 Environment

11.4.2 Concentration, Temperature, and Solution Velocity

11.4.3 Metallurgical Effects

11.5 Forms of Corrosion

11.5.1 Uniform Corrosion

11.5.2 Localized Corrosion

11.5.3 Galvanic (Bimetallic) Corrosion

11.5.4 Flow-Induced Erosion - Corrosion

11.5.5 Crevice Corrosion

11.5.6 Pitting Corrosion

11.5.7 Selective Corrosion

11.6 Environment-Assisted Failure 11.6.1 Stress Corrosion Cracking

11.6.1.1 Prevention of SCC

11.6.1.2 Mechanism of SCC Growth

11.6.1.3 Origins of SCC

11.6.1.4 Assessment of SCC Susceptibility

11.6.1.5 SCC Growth Rates

Handbook of Advanced Materials Edited by James K. Wessel ISBN 0-471-45475-3 Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

11.6.2 Corrosion Fatigue (CF)

11.6.2.1 Prevention of CF

11.6.2.2 Mechanisms of CF Crack Growth

11.6.2.3 Assessment of CF Susceptibility

11.6.2.4 CF Crack Growth (CFCG)

11.6.3 Hydrogen Embrittlement

11.6.3.1 Mechanisms of HE

11.6.3.2 Prevention of HE

11.7 Corrosion Testing

11.7.1 Introduction

11.7.2 Standard Laboratory Procedures 11.7.2.1 Pretreatment of Test Samples

11.7.3 Electrochemical Corrosion Tests

11.7.4 Service and Field Practice

11.8 Methods of Corrosion Prevention

11.8.1 Reducing the Aggressiveness of the Environment

11.8.2 Inhibitors

11.8.3 Anodic and Cathodic Protection

11.8.3.1 Cathodic Protection

11.8.3.2 Anodic Protection

11.8.4 Surface Coatings

11.8.4.1 Protection Mechanisms

11.8.5 Metallic Coatings

11.8.6 Conversion Coatings

11.8.7 Nonmetallic Barrier Coatings

11.8.7.1 Properties and Types of Paint Systems

11.9 Material Selection

11.9.1 Introduction

11.9.2 Ferrous Materials (Steels) 11.9.2.1 Grades of Stainless Steel

11.9.3 Nonferrous Materials

11.9.3.1 Aluminum and Its Alloys

11.9.3.2 Copper and Its Alloys

11.9.3.3 Titanium and Its Alloys

11.10 Design Aspects

11.10.1 Contributions to Safe Plant Construction and Operation

11.10.2 Design Considerations

11.10.3 Examples of Poor Design

11.10.4 Design Aspects—Summary References

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