Robert Akid

Materials Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, Sheffield, United Kingdom S1 1WB

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Economic Aspects of Corrosion

11.2.1 Cost of Corrosion

11.2.2 Learning from the Past

11.3 Corrosion Processes

11.3.1 Basic Concepts Definitions Formation of Corrosion Cells

11.3.2 Thermodynamic Aspects

11.3.3 Kinetics (Rates) of Corrosion Mixed-Potential Theory and Evans Diagrams Determination of Corrosion Rate

11.4 Factors Affecting the Rate of Corrosion

11.4.1 Environment

11.4.2 Concentration, Temperature, and Solution Velocity

11.4.3 Metallurgical Effects

11.5 Forms of Corrosion

11.5.1 Uniform Corrosion

11.5.2 Localized Corrosion

11.5.3 Galvanic (Bimetallic) Corrosion

11.5.4 Flow-Induced Erosion - Corrosion

11.5.5 Crevice Corrosion

11.5.6 Pitting Corrosion

11.5.7 Selective Corrosion

11.6 Environment-Assisted Failure 11.6.1 Stress Corrosion Cracking Prevention of SCC Mechanism of SCC Growth Origins of SCC Assessment of SCC Susceptibility SCC Growth Rates

Handbook of Advanced Materials Edited by James K. Wessel ISBN 0-471-45475-3 Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

11.6.2 Corrosion Fatigue (CF) Prevention of CF Mechanisms of CF Crack Growth Assessment of CF Susceptibility CF Crack Growth (CFCG)

11.6.3 Hydrogen Embrittlement Mechanisms of HE Prevention of HE

11.7 Corrosion Testing

11.7.1 Introduction

11.7.2 Standard Laboratory Procedures Pretreatment of Test Samples

11.7.3 Electrochemical Corrosion Tests

11.7.4 Service and Field Practice

11.8 Methods of Corrosion Prevention

11.8.1 Reducing the Aggressiveness of the Environment

11.8.2 Inhibitors

11.8.3 Anodic and Cathodic Protection Cathodic Protection Anodic Protection

11.8.4 Surface Coatings Protection Mechanisms

11.8.5 Metallic Coatings

11.8.6 Conversion Coatings

11.8.7 Nonmetallic Barrier Coatings Properties and Types of Paint Systems

11.9 Material Selection

11.9.1 Introduction

11.9.2 Ferrous Materials (Steels) Grades of Stainless Steel

11.9.3 Nonferrous Materials Aluminum and Its Alloys Copper and Its Alloys Titanium and Its Alloys

11.10 Design Aspects

11.10.1 Contributions to Safe Plant Construction and Operation

11.10.2 Design Considerations

11.10.3 Examples of Poor Design

11.10.4 Design Aspects—Summary References

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