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FIGURE 12.5 Standardization organization of CEN.

2. Questionnaire Procedure (PQ) This route is used when an appropriate "reference" document exists (often but not only an ISO item). This procedure does not require the formation a new technical committee.

3. Technical Committee (TC) When the first two cases are not possible, the CEN technical committees (TCs) gather the national delegations of experts convened by national members which must ensure that such delegations convey a national point of view that accounts for all interests affected by the work. Participation as observers of recognized European/international interests are authorized. TCs must take into account any relevant work (in ISO, for example) falling within its scope, as well as any data that may be supplied by national members and by other relevant European/international organizations. The results of this work can then be offered to ISO. Note: the third path (TC) can still use and modify ISO work. The first (ISO) and second (PQ) paths are used when the texts remain strictly the same.

Technical committees can be further subdivided into subcommittees if the scope of the work needs to be narrowed before the work on standards is actually implemented. Principal TCs are grouped as: biotechnology; heating, cooling, and ventilation; building and civil engineering; household goods, sports, and leisure; chemistry; information society standardization system; environment; materials; food; mechanical engineering; gas appliances; quality, measurement, and value analysis; health and safety at the workplace; services; health care; and transport and packaging.

The outcomes of this standardization process can take several forms as approved by formal votes of national members:

1. European standards (ENs) are usually the general rule because it is important that the national standards of members are identical wherever possible. Once an EN is implemented, members adopt them as the national standard.

2. European prestandards (ENVs) are established as prospective standards for provisional application in technical fields where the innovation rate is high or where there is an urgent need for guidance and primarily where the safety of persons or goods is not involved. ENVs do not have to be adopted by the members (but they must be announced and made available).

3. CEN reports (CRs) provide information and are adopted by the Technical Board.

4. CEN workshop agreements (CWAs) are consensus-based specifications, drawn up in an open workshop environment. Although CWAs are not formal standards, they can be produced on a rapid basis to meet market needs.

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