9

FIGURE 8.25 Boeing 777 Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al truck beam forging; a welded assembly about 10 m (33 ft) long. (Courtesy Boeing Commercial Airplane Company.)

FIGURE 8.27 Titanium alloy watch case produced using powder injection-molding (PIM) process. (Courtesy Hitachi Metals Precision/Casio Computer Co.)
FIGURE 8.28 Susan Abkowitz of Dynamet Technology holding titanium softball bat.
FIGURE 8.29 Titanium corrosion prevention cover on alluvial observation pier. (Courtesy Nippon Steel.)

TABLE 8.17 Airframe Weight Percentage of Titanium

System Early Design Final Concept

C5(Cargo) 24 3

Bl(Bomber) 42 22

F15(Fighter) 50 34

TABLE 8.17 Airframe Weight Percentage of Titanium

System Early Design Final Concept

C5(Cargo) 24 3

Bl(Bomber) 42 22

F15(Fighter) 50 34

The high cost of titanium alloy often limits use. For example, Table 8.17 compares the amount of titanium slated for use in three U.S. Air Force systems, expressed as airframe weight percentage, with early design figures shown for comparison [1]. Thus much work has concentrated on reducing component cost while maintaining acceptable mechanical property levels; approaches including near-net-shape techniques and lower cost alloy formulation.

An area for expansion for titanium is in automobiles with about 16 million cars and light trucks produced in the United States alone each year. Thus just 1.8 kg (4 lb) of titanium per vehicle could more than double titanium yearly consumption in the United States albeit with a dramatic effect on the titanium infrastructure [5, 6]. An "all-titanium" automobile was actually produced in the mid-1950s (Fig. 8.31). However, widespread use in large-volume production automobiles

FIGURE 8.31 All-titanium 1956 GM Titanium Firebird 2 automobile.

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FIGURE 8.32 Prime components for titanium substitution in large production volume automobile. (Courtesy Japan Titanium Society).
FIGURE 8.33 Titanium metal "woods." (Courtesy TaylorMade Golf.)

(Fig. 8.32) will require a cost-effective product [1-7]. Recently, the attractive ballistic behavior of titanium has led to use in military armored vehicles [37, 38].

A new development has been the use of titanium in golf clubs, particularly metal "woods" (Fig. 8.33) [5, 6]. Also the requirement to reduce harmful defects [such as type I, hard, high interstitial (O2 and N2) defects], and the possibility of single melting billets closer to final configuration (hence reducing cost) has resulted in increased present and planned hearth melting facilities [5, 6].

Baseball For Boys

Baseball For Boys

Since World War II, there has been a tremendous change in the makeup and direction of kid baseball, as it is called. Adults, showing an unprecedented interest in the activity, have initiated and developed programs in thousands of towns across the United States programs that providebr wholesome recreation for millions of youngsters and are often a source of pride and joy to the community in which they exist.

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