Castings are an attractive approach to the fabrication of titanium components since this technique allows production of relatively low-cost parts [5, 6, ,12]. Basically a near net shape is produced by allowing molten titanium to solidify in a graphite, ceramic, or metal mold. Use of a ceramic mold, generally produced by the "lost-wax" process, allows production of large, relatively high integrity, complex shapes. The metal mold process is capable of less complex and smaller parts, but cost can be only 50% of the ceramic mold process [5, 6]. Enhanced mechanical properties in combination with increased size and shape-making capabilities, have resulted in greatly increased use of titanium castings in both engine and airframe applications. The shipment of titanium castings has increased by a factor of 3 over the past 15 years to a level of about 400,000 kg/year (882,000 lb/year).

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