The starting stock for titanium ingot production may be either titanium sponge or reclaimed scrap or a combination of the two. In either case, stringent specifications must be met for control of ingot composition. Modern melting techniques remove volatile substances from sponge, so that ingot of high quality can be produced regardless of which method is used for the sponge production. However for critical aerospace use, especially in engines, melting must be carried out to virtually eliminate any type of defects. This has led to development of melting techniques in which the time-temperature for which the metal is molten is increased (e.g., electron beam and plasma cold hearth techniques) compared to conventional vacuum arc consumable electrode methods [5, 6, 12].

Recycling of titanium scrap (revert) is an important facet of cost-effective production of titanium product. The revert, which is recycled, includes cut sheet, reject castings, machine turning, and chips.

Ingots remain the major source of titanium mill products.

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