84 Physical Properties

Titanium in its natural form is a dark gray color; however, it is easily anodized to give a very attractive array of colors leading to use in jewelry and various other applications where appearance is important, including some buildings, the latter use particularly in Japan. The metal and its alloys are low density at approximately 60% of the density of steel. Titanium is nonmagnetic and has good heat transfer characteristics. Its coefficient of thermal expansion is somewhat lower than that of steel and less than half that of aluminum. The melting point of titanium and its alloys are higher than that of steel, but the maximum use temperature is much lower than would be anticipated based on this characteristic alone. A summary of the physical (and a few mechanical properties) of titanium are given in Table 8.1.

TABLE 8.1 Physical and Mechanical Properties of Elemental Titanium

Atomic number

Atomic weight

Atomic volume

Covalent radius

First ionization energy

Thermal neutron absorption cross section

Crystal structure



Melting point


Boiling point

Specific heat (at 298 K)

Thermal conductivity

Heat of fusion

Heat of vaporization

Specific gravity


Tensile strength

Modulus of elasticity

Young's modulus of elasticity

Poisson's ratio

Coefficient of friction

Specific resistance Coefficient of thermal expansion Electrical conductivity Electrical resistivity Electronegativity

Temperature coefficient of electrical resistance Magnetic susceptibility Machinability rating

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