714 Summary

An attempt has been made to describe nickel and its alloys of the unary, binary, ternary, and quaternary systems for applications in both aqueous corrosion and high-temperature applications. Some corrosion data, mechanical data, and general information on fabrication has also been provided. Some of the newer alloys, including the 6% Mo alloys, developed in the last 50 years have been discussed, specially the chronology of the various alloys of the C family with both their advantages and limitations. These newer alloys such as alloy 59 have shown increased acceptance in the industry due to its superior properties over the current workhorse of the Ni-Cr-Mo alloy family, alloy C-276. Alloy C-22, an alloy introduced in the 1980s, has now been superseded by the newer alloys of the 1990s, that is, alloy 59, alloy 686, and alloy C-2000. Alloys 686 and C-2000 have yet to find major commercial applications. Alloy C-4 has found some applications, but mostly in European countries. Hence from the current portfolio of the C family alloys, it is obvious that alloy C-276 will continue to be the workhorse of this alloy family, followed by alloy 59, which has superior properties. Alloy 59 has and will continue to replace alloy C-276 in those extreme and severe corrosive media where alloy C-276 is either inadequate or marginal in nature or where the industry, due to "safety and reliability" considerations, seeks a better alloy than C-276. Alloy 59 will continue to fulfill these specific needs of the CPI and other industries.

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