48

1997 1998 1999(E) 2000(E)

□ North America □ Europe □ Japan □ Russia □ China

FIGURE 8.20 Total titanium shipments by producing regions. (Courtesy Timet Corp.)

States is industrial, which is based on titanium's excellent corrosion resistance in salt and other aggressive environments. As indicated in Table 8.16, these market segments have similar proportions in both the United States and Europe, although the total U.S. market is about 2.5 times that of Europe based on 1990 data [2]. In Japan, a majority of the titanium is for nonaerospace use. The titanium capacity of the former Soviet Union was estimated to be about 90 million kg (200 million lb) per year in 1990, a capacity that could totally change the western marketplace with low-cost products.

The product requirements for titanium alloys in each market segment are based on the specific needs for the particular application. For example, jet engine requirements are focused primarily on high-temperature tensile and creep strength and thermal stability at elevated temperatures. Second-tier property considerations are fatigue strength and fracture toughness. Airframe applications require high tensile strength combined with good fatigue strength and fracture toughness. Ease of fabricability of components is also an important consideration. Industrial applications emphasize good corrosion resistance in a variety of media as a primary consideration as well as adequate strength, fabricability, and competitive cost, relative to other types of corrosion-resistant alloys.

Jet engine applications include discs and fan blades (Figs. 8.21 and 8.22). Airframe components produced from titanium vary from small parts to large main landing gear support beams, the aft section of a fuselage, and truck beam forgings (Figs. 8.23-8.25) [1-7].

Traditional nonaerospace applications cover tubing in heat transfer equipment (Fig. 8.26) and watches (Fig. 8.27). They also include sporting goods (Fig. 8.28), corrosion prevention covers on seawater piers (Fig. 8.29), and roofs of buildings (Fig. 8.30) [1-7].

FIGURE 8.21 Ti-6Al-4V fan disc forgings for General Electric's CF6 series engine. Each forging is 90 cm (35 in.) in diameter and weighs 250 kg (550 lb). (Courtesy Wyman-Gordon Company.)
FIGURE 8.23 Ti-6Al-4V main landing gear support beam forging for Boeing 747. Each forging is 6.2 m long, 97 cm wide, 28 cm thick (20 ft x 38in. x 11in.) and weighs over 1600 kg (3525 lb). (Courtesy Wyman-Gordon Company.)
FIGURE 8.24 Aft Ti-6Al-4V/Ti-8Mn "boat-tail" section of fuselage of F-5. Section of plane experiences heating due to its proximity to engine. (Courtesy Northrop-Grumman Corporation, Aircraft Division.)
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