1341 Inprocess Information

The processing stages used for most ceramic composites does not allow use of any contact or immersion in a liquid couplant as might be used for water-coupled ultrasonics. The reason is that any absorption of water might act as a contaminant in subsequent steps. For this reason, NDE technologies developed for composites primarily involve noncontact methods such as air-coupled ultrasonics [47 -49], thermal imaging [50-52], X-ray imaging of various modalities, or very limited contact methods such as acousto-ultrasonics [40,41] and resonance methods [53, 54].

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