1227 Regional

Although various parts of the world are developing various regional efforts for defense, trade, and economic reasons [e.g. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), EC, World Trade Organization (WTO), Group of 7/8, North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), etc.], there are few obvious and successful examples of regional efforts in regard to standards. The most evident recent example of a regional standards effort is CEN as discussed in the following discussion.

European Committee for Standardization (CEN), European Committee for Elec-trotechnical Standardization (CENELEC), and European Telecommunications Institute are the three European standardization bodies recognized competent in the area of voluntary technical standardization as listed in European Union Directive. Together they prepare European Standards (a.k.a. Norms) (EN) in specific sectors of activity. As in ASTM, most standards are prepared at the request of industry. However, as in JISC, a government entity, in this case the European Commission (EC), can also request that the standards bodies prepare standards in order to implement European legislation. Such standardization is "mandated" by the EC and becomes part of the program of work of each standardization body (Table 12.2).

The CEN consists of a "system" to carry out formal processes shared between national members, associates, affiliates, and correspondents. For the purposes of approving standards, only the national members can vote, with each nation having only one vote. It is useful to look at the organization of CEN to understand the standards development process. As shown in Fig. 12.5, the oversight of the CEN standardization process is controlled by the Technical Board of CEN. Once agreed to by the CEN national members in the Technical Board, the development of European standards with precise scopes, titles, and target dates for completion is conducted through one of three main routes:

1. International Standardization (ISO) This procedure (formalized as the Vienna Agreement) allows CEN to decide case by case and according to precise conditions to transfer the execution of European standards to ISO (and in a few cases, vice versa). The work is done according to specific ISO rules and CEN/ISO parallel procedures for public enquiry and formal vote. Under this procedure ISO may nominate a representative to sit in a CEN committee and vice versa.

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