In Japan, industrial standardization is promoted at the national, industry association, and company level. JISC develops Japanese industrial standards (JIS) as voluntary national standards. JISC has implemented divisions (e.g., JISC committee R, Fine Ceramics) that develop processes and techniques for, among other things, providing a JIS mark that assures a certain level of quality. One requirement for the success of the JISC standardization efforts is that the resulting standards should be shaped with industrial users in mind. Seldom if ever are research-oriented standards acceptable as commercial standards. To ensure commercial usefulness, industry must participate in the standards-setting process. Various JISC divisions and the type of JIS standards that result are shown in Fig. 12.3. Note that the 19 divisions of JISC are far fewer in number than the over 150 committees of ASTM. Moreover, divisions within JISC specifically exclude medicines, agricultural chemicals, chemical fertilizers, silk yarn, and foodstuffs/agricultural/forest products. However, within each division, a myriad of activities and subactivities are present, often guided by national programs under the guidance of the Ministry on International Trade and Industry (MITI).

It is useful to look at the organization of JISC to understand the standards development process. As shown in Fig. 12.4, the oversight of the JISC standardization process is through its Divisional Committee and its Technical Division Council. Draft or requests for JIS standards can come from many directions: any interested party (e.g., industry) or a relevant governmental minister or governmental program. The technical scrutiny and progressive ballot/revision process such as that of ASTM is not obvious in the JISC system. Once a draft standard is submitted to JISC by a competent minister, one of the divisional councils is asked to deliberate it. If necessary, further deliberation may take place within of the technical committees. When the draft is considered appropriate and rationale, JISC reports this to the competent minister and the standard is announced and published as a JIS standard through official channels. No provisions for revision or reapproval are obvious.

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