1222United States

The United States is the only industrialized nation in which the national standards institute is not part of or supported by the national government [5]. The National Institute for Standards and Technology (formerly National Bureau of Standards) (NIST), which is an entity within the U.S. Department of Commerce, conducts research on advanced materials and processing as well an initiating and promoting development of voluntary standards. NIST also develops standard reference materials (SRMs), which are used for "calibration" and verification of test instruments and procedures. However, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is the coordinating organization for the voluntary standards systems for the United States and is comprised of individuals and standards writing bodies. It certifies the standards-making processes of other organizations, initiates new standards-making projects, represents the United States within ISO, and examines the standards prepared by other organizations to determine whether they meet the requirements for consensus so as to be included as an ANSI standard [5]. Of the over 175 organizations accredited by ANSI to produce standards, the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has produced over half of the existing ANSI standards. The following discussion briefly discusses ASTM and its role in standards for advanced materials.

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