Table 1.3 UK maintenance spending

■ Twice UK trade deficit

■ Three times value of new plant investment

from breakdown and towards predictive and preventive approaches. The histogram chart in Figure 1.8 serves as an indication of objectives for improvements in performance from the present unsatisfactory levels to benchmark levels.

Japanese methods have been at the heart of the transformation in manufacturing efficiency which has taken place over the last twenty to thirty years and which is still going on. There are common threads running through all of these methods:

• Developing human resources

• Cleanliness, order and discipline in the workplace

• Striving for continuous improvement

• Putting the customer first

• Getting it right first time, every time

Central to all these approaches to manufacturing efficiency is the concept of TPM. Asset care has to become an integral part of the total organization so that everyone is aware of, and involved in, the maintenance function. The end result is that breakdowns become a positive embarrassment and are not allowed to occur. The assets of the production process are operated at optimum efficiency because the signs of deterioration and impending failure are noticed and acted upon.

Asset care covers three interrelated issues combining autonomous maintenance and planned preventive maintenance.

• Cleaning and inspection:

• Checks and monitoring:

• Preventive maintenance and service:

Daily activities to prevent accelerated wear Early problem detection and diagnosis Injection of relevant technical expertise to prevent failure and restore condition

Current vs. benchmark maintenance practices

Current vs. benchmark maintenance practices

Reactive Preventive Predictive Proactive

] Current I Benchmark

Reactive Preventive Predictive Proactive

] Current I Benchmark

Figure 1.8 Assel care balance

These are described in more detail in Chapter 3. It should be recognized that asset care is something that evolves with experience. Once established, it is refined to reflect the improved equipment condition.

First sporadic losses

The route to high levels of reliability is reasonably predictable. Asset care is directed first towards sporadic losses. These are sudden failures such as breakdowns. They can be almost totally removed by improving equipment condition, reducing human error through training, fool-proofing and establishing how to detect potential failures before they occur. Experience shows that effective asset care can detect 80 per cent of potential component failures and stabilize the life span of the remaining 20 per cent. This is why zero breakdowns are becoming an accepted reality in most world-class operations.

Then optimization

Once sporadic losses are under control, the target becomes chronic losses. These require improved problem-finding skills. As such, asset care is refined to look for minor quality defects which direct first the definition and then the implementation of optimum conditions.

The seven steps of autonomous maintenance provide the route map to this evolution but, to be effective, must be supported by similar restructuring of planned maintenance activities.

These two activities are the core of the improvement zone implementation process described in Chapter 8. Teams translate management standards into local policy/best practice covering the following:

• Basic systems of problem detection, including initial cleaning and information, to understand the root causes and develop countermeasures;

• Basic lessons of maintaining equipment condition and increased understanding of equipment functions to correct design weaknesses and systemize asset care;

• Standardize and practise to achieve zero breakdowns and then optimum conditions.

The senior management role in asset care

The pace of progress through these stages is directly related to the priority which management assigns to it. To simplify this effect, TPM identifies clear management roles. These roles, known as pillar champions, provide leadership in terms of:

• setting priorities (where to start, what next?)

• setting expectations (work standards to be applied consistently)

• giving recognition (reinforce values)

The pillar champion roles and their relationship with the rest of the TPM infrastructure is set out in Figure 1.9.

Figure 1.9 The TPM Infrastructure

of the 5 Ss, which are central to all the Japanese methods evolved since the end of the Second World War:

In English-speaking countries an alternative way of expressing the 5 Ss is the more easily remembered CAN DO of:

• cleanliness

• arrangement

• discipline

The philosophy is exactly the same, however:

1 Get rid of everything and anything unnecessary.

2 Put what you do want in its right place so that it is to hand.

3 Keep it clean and tidy at all times, recognizing that cleanliness is neatness (a clear mind/attitude), is spotting deterioration (through inspection), is putting things right before they become catastrophes, is pride in the workplace, giving self-esteem.

4 Pass on that discipline and order to your colleagues so that we all strive for a dust-free and dirt-free plant.

The CAN DO approach, therefore, is to look at the production facility and clean the workshop and its plant and machinery as it has never been cleaned before, whilst at the same time casting a ruthlessly critical eye at everything in the workplace. Nothing must be allowed to remain anywhere on the shopfloor unless it is directly relevant to the current production process. Good housekeeping thereafter becomes everyone's responsibility and a way

The cleaning process involves the operators of machines and plant. As they clean, they will get to know their machines better; they will gradually develop their own ability to see or detect weaknesses and deterioration such as oil leaks, vibration, loose fastenings and unusual noise. As time goes on, they will be able to perform essential, front-line asset care and some minor maintenance tasks within the limits of their own skills. The process will take place in complete co-operation with maintenance people, who will be freed to apply their technical skills where needed.

With the attitude to cleanliness and good housekeeping understood, we can move on to explain the main principles on which TPM is founded. In Chapter 4 we explain the toolbox of techniques used to implement these principles and how to develop buy-in by developing understanding through practical application of the WCS nine-step TPM improvement plan.

• seiso organization orderliness cleaning (the act of) cleanliness (the state of) discipline (the practice of)

of life.

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