Glossary of TPM terms

Asset Care Programme: A systematic approach to keeping equipment in 'as new' condition. This consists of carrying out routine activities such as: cleaning and inspection (carried out by the operator and sometimes called Operator Asset Care or Autonomous Maintenance), checking and monitoring (sometimes called Condition Based Monitoring), preventative maintenance and servicing (sometimes called Maintainer Asset Care).

Availability: The actual run time of a machine as a percentage of its planned run time.

Best of the Best: An OEE figure calculated by multiplying the best weekly availability, the best weekly performance and the best weekly quality rates for a machine over a period, e.g. of typically one month.

CAN DO/5S: Five common sense principles of workplace organization (arrangement, neatness, cleaning, order and discipline). CAN DO is the western equivalent of the Japanese 5Ss.

Condition Appraisal: The assessment of the condition of a machine's components as a first step to undertaking the refurbishment plan and improving the OEE. This must involve carrying out a deep clean as part of the assessment.

Condition Cycle: The second stage of the TPM Improvement Plan, which includes criticality assessment, condition appraisal, refurbishment plan and the asset care programme.

Core Team: These are the mixed shift based teams comprising operators and maintainers and a Team leader. These teams work through the 9 Step TPM Improvement Plan on their Pilot Projects typically over a 12 to 16 week period.

Criticality Assessment: An evaluation of each of the machine's components against set criteria and their likely impact on production, safety, environment and cost.

Five Whys: Asking 'Why?' five times to try to get to the root cause of the problem.

Four Milestones: This is the progression the organization goes through over a period of approximately 4—6 years as they embark on the TPM Process. These have been recognized as discrete phases that organizations go through as they transform themselves. The 4 Milestones are:

1. Introduction

2. Refine Best Practice and Standardize

3. Build Capability

4. Zero Losses

At each Milestone there will be audits to establish your capability in transforming the business and further planning to take into account the future changes required to meet customer and market needs, as well as the organization's needs. For each milestone your management team will have defined goals and targets as Pillar Champions, that should be realized having reached each of the milestone stages.

Improvement Zone (IZ): This is a geographical area where the First Line Managers and their teams apply the basic techniques of TPM and CANDO/ 5S. This area is a manageable but representative portion of the process or plant which when improved, will provide an important contribution to the business.

Key Contact: These are support personnel, usually from the functional departments like Finance, Design, Engineering, Laboratory, or individuals with specialist knowledge. They will gradually get involved either with an improvement project for themselves or using their specialist knowledge to support an improvement team. Their aim is to support organizational learning and problem resolution using the tools of TPM.

Maintainability: This refers to how easy it is to gain access to the equipment and the particular skills needed to diagnose a problem.

Measurement Cycle: The first stage of a TPM Improvement Plan, consisting of collecting equipment history, calculating the OEE and assessing the Six Losses.

Minor Stoppage: When a machine is stopped for a relatively short period (e.g. to clear a blockage) and then re-started without the need for any repair. A minor stop therefore causes an Operator to have to interfere with the process, but does not require the attendance of a Maintenance Technician.

Nine Step TPM Improvement Plan: This is a set of steps the Core Teams progressively go through when analysing the Pilot Plant/Area. It enables them to understand the equipment, measure the problems, analyse then fix the condition of the equipment and lastly pass on specific technical or support issues still to be resolved. By doing so the teams will improve the equipment, but more importantly they will discover the real reasons why the equipment is in the condition we see it and why it's not performing in the way we would want. Some of these issues can be fixed quickly and some are more long term. Only the critical plant and equipment will be subject to the 9 Step Improvement Plan.

OEE: A measure used in TPM to calculate the percentage of actual effectiveness of the equipment. Taking into consideration the availability of the equipment, the performance rate when running and the quality rate of the manufactured product measured over a period of time (days, weeks or months). The difference between the current OEE and its maximum potential is the current cost of non-conformity. Sometimes called the 'hidden factory'.

Operational Improvements: Improvement activities which result in increasing the equipment's reliability once implemented by the TPM core team. The objective being to make it easy to do things right and difficult to do things wrong.

Pillar Champions: Initially there are five very important capabilities that everyone needs to embrace if TPM is to flourish. These are:

1. Continuous Improvement in OEE (OEE)

2. Maintenance Asset Care (MAC)

3. Operator Asset Care (OAC)

4. Skills Development (SD)

5. Early Equipment Management (EEM)

Because the five principles (sometimes called the Pillars of TPM) are so important we assign their development to each member of the management team. Each Pillar Champion as they are referred to creates the environment at the Plant, by changing the way they manage, to enable everyone to contribute to these principles and the TPM process. They therefore develop the policy for the particular pillar and then ensure its consistent deployment.

Pilot Projects: These initial pilots are learning experiences for the core teams to work through the nine Step TPM Improvement Plan. They are small but representative 'chunks' of plant that enable us to flush out the management processes and habits that need to change if we want TPM to flourish across a plant or site.

P-M Analysis: A problem solving tool used in TPM in conjunction with the five whys. The 4 Ps and the 4 Ms stand for:

4 Ps - phenomena which are physical in nature which cause problems that can be prevented.

4 Ms - are caused by machines, manpower, methods and materials.

Performance Rate: The actual performance rate of a machine or process, expressed as a percentage of planned performance rate.

Problem Prevention Cycle: The third and final stage in the Improvement Plan when the TPM Core Team concentrates on preventing problems from occurring in the future.

Roll-Out: This is where we start implementing the TPM techniques across the whole site. This is so that we can begin to get everyone involved and contributing to the TPM process. This also has a number of stages (called Phases). These are staggered so that we implement TPM at a sustainable rate.

Quality Loss: Lost production due to the manufactured product not being produced right first time and which will therefore need to be either re-worked or scrapped.

Quality Rate: The first time ok product, expressed as a percentage of the total manufactured.

Reduced Speed Loss: Production lost due to running equipment at a speed lower than its intended or designed speed.

Refurbishment Plan: Identifying all the activities that need to be undertaken in order to restore the equipment to 'as new' condition. This includes an estimate of the cost, manpower resources, agreed priorities, timing and

Scoping Study: The Scoping Study provides information to support the development of the TPM implementation programme. This will include a cost/benefit appraisal. It also identifies any potential roadblocks and provides an indication of the workforce's perception and feelings.

Set Up and Adjustment Losses: Production time lost because a machine is

Six Losses: These are the categories of losses the TPM teams use to identify and measure plant problems so that they can prioritise them and progressively reduce or eliminate them. These are the things that affect your Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) score. The six Losses are:

These two affect whether the machine is available to produce or not. This is why we use this as the AVAILABILITY percentage within the OEE

These two affect the PERFORMANCE of your machine when running. This is the percentage rate within the OEE calculation.

These two affect the Quality of the product produced on the machine. This is the QUALITY percentage within the OEE calculation.

Start Up Loss: Lost production due to defects which occur at the start of a

Support Improvements: Improvements to equipment efficiency that can only be achieved through changes in other parts of the organization.

Support Team: This team includes representatives from each support function such as finance, design, engineering, production control, quality control, supervision, and a Union representative. Usually referred to as Key Contacts.

Technical Improvements: Improvements to equipment efficiency that require technical analysis of problems before they can be implemented.

TPM: TPM is the abbreviation of Total Productive Maintenance. It is a comprehensive strategy that supports the purpose of equipment improvement to maximize its efficiency and product quality. Many TPM practitioners prefer to call it Total Productive Manufacturing to highlight the need for an equal partnership between production and maintenance.

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