Adarns Warner Lambert

By Clive Marsden, Technical Director, and Chris Rose, TPM Manager

1.0 Background issues

Famous for producing the world's biggest-selling medicated sweets, Halls throat lozenges, Adams (Warner Lambert) is a company synonymous with quality pharmaceutical, healthcare, shaving and confectionery products. Listed among the world's top 100 companies, Adams counts Wilkinson Sword, Benylin, Clorets, Dentyne, Stimorol gum and Tetra among its famous brands.

In 1994, the then Maintenance Manager, Clive Marsden, commissioned an audit of the maintenance function at its Manchester factory, which employs 500 staff and produces approximately 600 tonnes of sweets a week. The results highlighted a shortfall in data, a lack of operator involvement in the maintenance function and organizational issues. As a result, Clive developed a plan and gained enthusiastic backing - including financial backing - from Alan Hulme, Plaint Director, along with the Senior Management Team, to address some of the issues highlighted by the audit.

As a result, a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS)

called Mainsaver was proposed, which, among other things, would provide data to improvement teams. In addition, a wide-ranging Total Productive Maintenance programme was planned, complemented by a restructuring programme to enhance teamworking.

This was seen as a major change to a very traditional site, and protracted negotiations with both unions took place before the plans were implemented.

It was very interesting to note that once the unions - particularly the engineers - were 'on board' with the proposals, they became fervent champions of - and heavily personally involved in - TPM.

Adams was looking for a shopfloor-based, easily understood continuous improvement tool. TPM was the perfect solution in that it provided a grassroots process, with a simple and universal business performance measure of OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness), and involved both operators and maintainers as joint experts and teamworkers.

TPM was formally introduced to the Manchester site in 1996 - the first Adams site in the world to implement TPM - with three pilot projects, each focusing on a critical piece of machinery or group of similar machines: Volpak, 1001 and 2001 machines.

Leading TPM consultancy, WCS International, provided initial planning and training expertise, to develop a long-term sustainable TPM programme that is now supported by coaching and regular audit and review advice.

Based upon the successes of the pilot teams, it was decided to 'roll out' the TPM process across the whole site. Clive Marsden gained agreement to recruit a full-time manager to co-ordinate and lead this 'roll-out'. As a result, Chris Rose was appointed as full-time TPM Manager two years ago, having worked at Adams for 22 years, where he began as a maintenance craftsman.

Full-time facilitator

Chris Rose co-ordinates TPM activities at the Manchester site. He also facilitates the TPM process, attends team TPM meetings and hosts his own TPM Facilitator's meeting once a week. Every four weeks, Chris reports back to the Area Steering Group, which addresses any roadblocks and ensures that the team's activities are linked to the company's business goals.

Communication is the key

One of the most important aspects of the TPM programme is the communication of its results and initiatives - there was a time at Adams when TPM was thought to be an elitist hobby for a select group of workers. However, this issue has been addressed through the creation of improvement zones and involvement of staff through the company Intranet site.

Wrapping Technical Operator and computer enthusiast, Fiore Festa, developed a TPM site for the company's Intranet system in his spare time. Chris Rose was so impressed with Fiore's work that he showed the Plant Director what he had done, and Fiore was seconded from the shopfloor so that he could develop the project.

Workers from all departments can log in and take a look at the work of the different TPM teams. Photographs of each piece of machinery can be found on the relevant TPM team pages. By clicking onto a specific part of the machine, a new screen is revealed which gives details of TPM actions and cost savings for that area of the machine.

Chris Rose comments: 'The TPM Team page on the Intranet site has been invaluable in educating all staff about what we are doing with TPM.'

The site can also be accessed by Adams factories and offices overseas.

3.0 Benefits

For all staff at Adams Manchester, TPM is a common language that previously did not exist - and OEE is the cornerstone of this language. Says Chris: 'Everyone, from finance to operators and maintainers, know what the OEE is and the significance of improvements.'

A recent Human Resources (HR) audit carried out by an American team established that the introduction of TPM had improved company worker morale, as people felt they were being involved in the decision-making process.

Involving finance

The Finance Department has been heavily involved in the implementation of TPM. Manufacturing Accounting Manager, Liz Morton, comments: 'We had to be able to show that real cost savings were being made with TPM or why do it? TPM cost money in that we were taking staff from the shopfloor to engage in TPM meetings and training. We had to ensure that this was going to be money wisely invested.'

Liz is also involved in the production of annual business plans. TPM, and the costs and savings involved, are a vital part of this plan.

Liz Morton spent time with the TPM teams and calculated a value for a 1 per cent improvement in OEE. Continues Liz: 'Putting a value to OEE improvements was a good starting point. It provided a way to bridge the gap between TPM and the shopfloor, and management and finance.'

In terms of value for money, one key area that Liz looked at first was process bottlenecks. Explains Liz: 'At Adams, individual machines do not operate in isolation. This means that unless you first target bottlenecks in the process, you could waste a lot of time making improvements that never show up on the bottom line.'

Through her role in finance and a focus on activity-based costing, Liz Morton has assessed the big picture and agrees that TPM improvements can have an enormously beneficial knock-on effect. She says: If a machine breaks down, then we have no product being produced, staff being paid to do nothing, plus the cost of repairs in terms of labour and spares. If you then look at the fact that this product may be part of an urgent shipment, there are implications for customer service. If we want to meet the customer's deadline, then we have to look at getting staff in at the weekend, plus using air instead of sea freight. The costs just snowball.'

Liz also focuses on cost deployment, which highlights the cost of not making things 'right first time' (cost of quality). TPM's six losses were top of the hit list. The benefits of cost and quality deployment are:

• As a motivator for teams

• Teams are able to make financial decisions (empowerment)

• TPM teams can speak senior management language (i.e. £s)

• Focuses on costs

It's the people that matter

TPM is often associated with people empowerment, and Adams has working examples of this. Chris Rose continues: "We have found that TPM teams are responding directly to business requirements in terms of production - for example, in finding ways to meet customer requests for amended packaging. The team will look at trialling a solution or new way of working and then report in to management to request the financing required to fully roll out the improvements. Previously, capital expenditure requests were the sole remit of management."

The environment in which TPM thrives, along with the workers, is one of flexibility and versatility. Jobs are developed away from previously rigid roles. Operators, as opposed to electricians, now calibrate some machines. This frees up the electricians to work at a more technical level, which in turn enables proactive, instead of reactive, working to take place.

TPM teams also come up with best practice guidelines for each piece of machinery. These are incorporated into training manuals and videos and disseminated across all shifts.

TPM for Design principles are also applied to new machinery, through involving the experience of the operators and maintainers, with minimum OEE levels negotiated into the terms of purchase and commissioning.

TPM has benefited safety and environmental issues in a number of ways. An element of the criticality assessment covers safety, and any improvement in looking after the equipment will have knock-on benefits in this area.

Not least, it has helped raise awareness with regard to safety issues and empowered those same workers to effect a cure or remedy with the help of key contacts such as the Health and Safety Officer.


• Work is made easier by working smarter, not harder.

• Better understanding of engineering and production problems.

• Operators have a more in-depth understanding of the machine.

• There is more cost awareness, not only of improvements in OEE, but also of material costs. Workers are therefore more conscientious and focused about waste.

Quotable quote

TPM has enabled people to develop skills that they didn't know they had.

Chris Rose

4.0 Team focus Volpak bagging machine

The Volpak machine packs 120 bags of sweets every minute and was the focus of one of Adams' three pilot studies. The machine was part of the 'New technology' introduced into the factory over the past few years and had been giving problems with quality and availability, partly due to the new type of bag it was handling. Through collecting OEE data, assessing the six losses and setting improvement priorities, dramatic improvements in performance were made.

A 1 per cent improvement in performance on the Volpak is equivalent to £35 000 in annual cost savings. In just three months, a series of improvements resulted in the OEE leaping from 69 per cent to 78 per cent, giving £210 000 of cost avoidance and £105 000 of actual savings per annum based on an original estimated and planned OEE for the new machine of 75 per cent. Finance was then able to incorporate a target OEE improvement of 80 per cent, giving a further saving of £70 000, into the budget for the following year.

GD wrapping machine

When a reel of foil sweet wrappers ran out, it took approximately 4 minutes to change the reel, with a loss of 50 wrappers and an average of 22 reel changes per shift.

The TPM team responsible for the machine looked at an electronic heat-impulse foil splicer, an improvement which led to £16 220 in cost savings for the factory.

5.0 The future for TPM

The future objectives for TPM are to:

1 Reduce material usage.

2 Integrate TPM fully into the Adams culture.

3 Start new teams and integrate team leaders into the existing TPM teams.

4 Use TPM to support the maintenance strategy.

5 Promote interdepartmental communication by staff from one department joining a TPM team that supplies them with a sendee.

At Adams, TPM is now a way of life - both on the shopfloor and in the boardroom. From the successes with TPM at Adams Manchester, it is easy to see how, once begun, there should be no reason for going back.

BP Amoco Forties Field

By Warren Burgess and Mike Milne, BP Amoco Operations Excellence Facilitators

1.0 Background

In 1997, BP's Forties Delta platform pioneered a series of Continuous Improvement (CI) projects that have helped reduce unplanned shutdowns by 53 per cent and set the stage for the future operations of the Forties platforms.

The various projects, managed in conjunction with WCS International, have pulled together platform and beach workers from every discipline in a united cause: to improve the safety, environmental impact, efficiency and productivity of BP's operations on the Forties Delta Platform.

The methodology used borrows heavily from Total Productive Maintenance and has been introduced as a CI improvement tool, along with other improvement initiatives in safety (STOP) and training.

Rather than starting 'yet another initiative', this complements the concept of building on existing good practices as a practical application of organizational learning and personal development, with the goal as Totally Productive Operations (TPO).

Initial workshop

The work began in March 1997 with a short planning exercise followed by a four-day 'hands-on' workshop. This looked at two pieces of equipment to provide awareness and training, and a pragmatic demonstration of the effectiveness of the approach.

The two projects undertaken during this workshop were the sodium hypochlorite and scale inhibitor systems. Even though the four days were mainly an opportunity for delegates to experience the power of CI, the two teams identified many benefits.

The scale inhibitor team developed recommendations to reduce maintenance intervention and the sodium hypochlorite team proposed an alternative design of pump which significantly reduced the estimated capital expenditure investment already allocated to this system.

Project focus

The initial workshop projects were followed by focused pilot projects to improve the maintenance and operability of four key areas of plant:

• Seawater injection

• Hydrocyclones

• Separators

These were chosen by representatives of the complete platform team at the Platform Conference. A third of each shift team dedicated itself to improvements in one of these four areas, using a nine-step TPM-based improvement plan.

Initial difficulties

Continuous Improvement Facilitator, Mike Milne, sums up the problems encountered at the start of the project:

We had many difficulties to begin with. First we had to address the problem of getting the time to attend the CI meetings. Teams were tied to a spiral of reactive performance that did not leave enough time for proactive measures.

Platform management stepped in to set priorities that ensured we broke free of this restriction: Safety, Production and CI and the promotion of a greater awareness of the benefits of the proactive approach.

Platform personnel also attended the 'Manufacturing Game' - a business simulation, developed by Dupont, that drives home the benefits of running a proactive business. Back on the platform, the teams planned and organized a two-hour slot to meet and discuss their CI project. Shift Team Leaders (STLs) needed to provide resources that freed staff to attend the meetings. As part of the Trip Objective process, measures were put in place to ensure that this happened. "This was not an easy target and it challenged the planning skills and resourcefulness of each STL and CI team leader,' concludes Mike.

2.0 Results

As we move into 1998, the projects are currently in their final stages and have already brought a variety of specific and measurable benefits to the successful operation of the platform - the most notable being the reduction of unplanned shutdowns (see below).

Introduction of procedures

A series of standardization procedures have been introduced, including checklists, best practice routines, asset care procedures and problem-solving techniques, which have increased the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)

The project has given the team a lot of personal satisfaction and a great deal of hard work went into it. Many Best Practices have been developed which have been rolled out to the other two

This cascading of information from shift to shift, and ultimately having the agreement of all four shifts, is vital to the success of

P06 is one of the three turbine-driven pumps used on the Main Oil Line (MOL) system. These have all become less prone to unplanned shutdowns. P06's best fit OEE is now at 50 per cent as at end December, up from 6 per

P06 was the worst of the three pumps. A Critical Assessment highlighted a pile of smaller jobs that needed to go through the maintenance system. We had to establish a fault-reporting system as a framework to get the jobs done - all have now been actioned

Some jobs are just too big and so needed onshore support. This opened up communication lines with the engineers and vendors. Everyone now knows in whose area things belong. We also had some very good discussions among the techs themselves - before this hands-on team-based approach, we just hadn't been aware

Howard concludes: 'The structure of the 9-step improvement programme helps you do it the correct way, even though it can seem a bit heavy.'

Two excellent results were obtained in this area. The OEE has risen from 45 per cent to 90 per cent and the corrosion control performance has risen from

The main breakthrough for the hydrocyclone team was in identifying the problem with the inlet quality from the separators. As a result, both Bank A and Bank B hydrocyclone facilities greatly increased their OEE rates - Bank A from 40 per cent to 55 per cent over the year, and Bank B up to 80 per cent

Peter Hanson, Hydrocyclone Team Co-ordinator, comments: 'Prior to the project, Maintenance Technicians had no idea of the Operations side and vice versa. It was a real success in terms of the training aspect and brainstorming equipment issues.'


Again, two significant results from the two vessels involved in the pilot project, with OEE up from 30 per cent to 88 per cent on VOl and up 60 per cent on V02.

Unplanned shutdowns reduced by 55 per cent

Perhaps the result with the biggest impact generated by the project is that concerning the reduction of unplanned shutdowns. In 1996, unplanned shutdowns were running at an average of 5.4 per month. The target for 1997 was set at four per month - a 31 per cent reduction year on year. The reality was that unplanned shutdowns averaged just 2.6 per month - a reduction of 55 per cent. This figure greatly affects the rate of oil production and is the main reason why Delta has had a dramatic increase in its oil production in 1997.

Broken down, the figures for the second half of 1997 look even more impressive. During the first hali of the year, unplanned shutdowns were running just below the target, at 3.8 per month. However, from July to December there were only nine unplanned shutdowns -1.5 per month. This really is an impressive statistic. All on Delta onshore and offshore can be proud of this achievement. However, it does need to be sustained and, although there were only a total of 31 unplanned shutdowns in 1997, if we consider external events that caused FD to shut down, there are still considerable improvements to be had in striving towards a goal of zero unplanned events.

This is one of the main themes of continuous improvement and, just to prove it can be done, Delta achieved zero unplanned events in August, September and November 1997.

Looking specifically at some of the CI project areas, the MOL pumps achieved a remarkable improvement in unplanned shutdowns, down from thirty-seven in 1996 to nineteen in 1997. Again, the second half of the year accounted for only four of these unplanned events. The other significant improvement was in the area of Natural Gas Lift (NGL) unplanned shutdowns - these were reduced by 75 per cent in 1997.

ECS rates as low as 5 mg/kg

One of the Forties Delta's key environmental targets is to develop and deliver options to reduce environmental emissions. The legal limit of oil in water discharged to sea is 40 mg/kg. However, Forties Delta set an environmental target of 23 mg/kg at the beginning of the year.

Through the work of the separator and hydrocyclone teams, Effluent Control

System (ECS) rates of between 5 and 10 mg/kg have been achieved. These results will need to be stabilized and achieved consistently throughout 1998, but nonetheless represent an excellent starting point, giving the platform great confidence in its ability to reduce the environmental impact.

Having seen that their hands-on involvement is key to securing improvements on the platform, the separator CI team were eager to become involved in all phases of the upgrade works planned for the test separator, V03, from concept through design to commissioning. Other members of the integrated operations team came forward to offer help to set the criteria for the new equipment.

For Offshore Installation Manager (OIM), Brian Barnes, one of the key benefits of CI initiatives throughout 1997 has been the continuing evidence of people involvement and motivation. Comments Brian: 'Normally it would just have been the engineering teams onshore who were involved in the specification and procurement of new equipment. This time, their work has been given greater focus by the enthusiastic exchange of ideas and information

Previously onshore engineering teams would have approached the Operations Team Leader (OTL) for information on new equipment. It is now the operations team members themselves who are approached for feedback

For the next stage of the CI programme, the platform was divided into eight geographical improvement zones. The principles learnt during the four pilot projects of 1997 were applied to each piece of critical equipment in the various

This time around, every member of the shift team will be involved, highlighting the need for effective dissemination of information. Again, they will be encouraged to work alongside the onshore engineers to anticipate

Comments Brian: 'The shift in the way people worked together on V03 led naturally to the new way of co-operative working that will certainly help to drive the improvement zone approach - a key focus for the CI work for

Facilitator, Mike Milne, adds: 'Ultimately these steps ensure that the customer gets what he wants - where the customer, in this case, is the operator of the

The work on the improvement zones will be a crucial part of introducing the concept of Early Equipment Management, i.e. ensuring that all aspects of operations and maintenance are addressed at the design stage for new equipment modifications by the operations and maintenance people. In 1998, Forties Delta saw the installation of several pieces of new equipment, both capital investment and operation and maintenance works. It was, therefore, vital that the team members were fully up to speed with all the skills learnt so far in the CI programme, in order to contribute effectively to this next level of proactive involvement in the development of their facilities.

Brian Barnes and Mike Milne identified direct links between the improvement zones on the platform and work required for these equipment upgrades. Responsibility is being allocated to on- and offshore staff for each main activity - with both sides working closely together. For example, an offshore focus group has been established so that onshore engineers can discuss equipment issues, and shift teams are, therefore, already becoming familiar with the crucial role they will play during the installation phase, and its implications for the future efficiency of the platform.

And, of course, as is the case with all of the CI work done so far, this new approach will give the operators a major say upfront in how new and existing equipment is to be run and developed.

Training focus

Forties Delta has also embarked on the 'STOP ... for Safety' programme, and platform staff are currently being trained in STOP techniques. The programme is backed up by the Advanced Safety Auditing process, which uses similar techniques to those of STOP. Again, this is a CI process, with team members and management learning new ways to improve Forties Delta's already impressive safety performance.

Team members with a supervisory responsibility are continuing their training programme, and by the end of 1998 every member of platform staff will be trained in STOP ... for Safety techniques.


One of the most important focuses for training in 1997 was cross-discipline training, where operators from every shift have been taught not only to focus on their own specific field of expertise, but to learn about the wider application and impact of their role by training in neighbouring areas.

The learning of new skills, while retaining their core discipline, has allowed members to utilize CI more fully, producing a greater understanding of the parameters that drive the plant efficiently. For the individual, this spread of knowledge means an increase in responsibility, awareness, effectiveness and recognition.

Mike explains: 'We now have an Integrated Operations Team with a flexible approach to operating and maintaining the plant.' Mechanical, electrical and instrument technicians are capable of carrying out duties that were previously carried out only by a production technician. Meanwhile, production technicians assist in maintenance tasks and other asset care routines previously the domain of the maintenance technician.

Comments Brian: 'If the operators have a better feel for how maintenance links into the whole production process, they have far better judgement when it comes to making on the spot decisions that can drastically affect safety, performance and efficiency. We now have Instrumentation staff who can run the NGL plant and Production Technicians training in Control Room duties

- a year ago that would never have happened.'

A vital element of cross-training is the positive attitude that it engenders

- an openness and willingness to exchange knowledge with workers from other disciplines, giving a real team spirit right across the platform and onto the beach.

Ultimately, the drive for CI means that the plant is more stable. People are released from a round of reactive responses to machinery problems and instead can take a step back to implement proactive measures that allow both the individual and total platform team to be more in control of its operations: prevention rather than cure.

4.0 The future for Forties

The importance of the work on Delta cannot be underestimated. In the future, Alpha, Bravo and Charlie will all share in the CI practices tried and tested during the late 1990s by Delta. The intent for the Forties Field is to move to consistent use of best practices across the whole field and maximize the opportunity of sharing lessons learned between each of the platforms. Other assets outside Forties are already taking an interest in the work that Delta have embarked upon and are keen to learn from the Delta experience.

Over the next five years, Forties Field will also be looking at a series of environmental improvement issues, including the emission of hydrocarbon gas, carbon dioxide and overboard discharges.

So just as an operator now shares knowledge with and co-operates with a team member from another discipline, so too the Forties Platforms will pool their strengths and learn best practice from each other to everyone's benefit.

Already Delta staff have been involved in seeking best practices and new ideas from other assets, both at home and abroad. This will continue throughout 1998, with several visits being planned. Platform staff are about to embark upon a shared learning experience. The programme will include short-term transfers of personnel. Delta have already been hosts to other BP asset staff. They believe that by this type of co-operation they have a forum for exchanging techniques, methodology, procedures and processes that has been shown to improve business results.

As BP Chief Executive, John Browne, said in a recent Sunday Telegraph article: 'The most important thing I have done is to play a part in building a team for today and for the future. We set the strong goals and within that our people innovate to get the right answer.'

Elkes Biscuits

By Ian Barraclough, TPM Manager

1.0 Background

Founded in 1924, Elkes Biscuits began life as a small tea and cake shop in High Street, Uttoxeter. The company now has a turnover of £55 million, manufactures 1000 tonnes of biscuits per week and employs 1300 people.

Owned by Northern Foods, Elkes Biscuits is primarily a private-label supplier. Included in the product range are well-known biscuits such as Custard Creams, Nice, Parleys Rusks, Ginger Nuts and the most famous of them all, Malted Milk, which were first created over sixty years ago.

In a commodity product like biscuits, driving down costs is a continuous process. One way of reducing costs is to minimize downtime, which is where TPM excels. Following a visit to the 'TPM 4' Conference, Elkes Biscuits has introduced a variety of significant and ongoing improvements to the plant. These centre around:

• new staff structure, which has merged front-line maintenance and production under operations and removed a reporting layer;

• full-time TPM Manager, Ian Barraclough;

• asset care and best practice routines for seventeen projects to date, including high quality and highly visual single-point lessons;

• introduction of operator technicians, allowing skilled maintenance technicians to focus on more proactive, advanced jobs;

• move towards multi-skilling, application of asset care and best practice routines by operator technicians;

• dedicated TPM Centre with training room, computers, manuals and library;

• nine-step TPM process for critical pieces of machinery;

• gradual training of the whole workforce on the TPM nine steps;

• high-profile activity boards showing in detail the nine steps for each machine, including spare parts log, OEE performance bulletins, CAN DO audits and TPM updates;

• daily review system of line performance using OEE data;

• fortnightly continuous improvement group meetings to review and plan activities.

One of TPM's strengths is its ability to operate alongside other quality initiatives. At Elkes, these include NVQ assessments, the drive for Investors in People accreditation and FAST (Elkes' own Faster Achievable Set-up Times - similar

TPM, working with these other initiatives, has helped to secure the following

• engineering, maintenance and production working closer together to

• TPM used as a driver for problem solving and problem prevention;

• more effective teamworking within and between departments;

• financial benefits through production line OEE improvements of 5 per cent to 10 per cent, as a result of improved machine performance.

A small example of exactly how TPM affects life on the shopfloor: the inline creamer had a rather antiquated and inaccurate method of aerating the cream in the biscuit sandwich. As a result of the application of TPM principles, the system was changed, resulting in finite control of the process, improving the biscuit quality and consistency, and making the operator's life easier.

Before TPM we would identify problems but had no chance to do anything about them. TPM is great because it gives us the time and opportunity to make changes which last because we underpin the problem with effective

The nine-step process gives a very structured and cohesive approach to

Elkes takes TPM very seriously. It is currently used on the majority of lines at the plant and there is a firm commitment to continue to roll it out plant-wide

A key project for the immediate future will be the application of TPM to the latest creams plant investment at Elkes where every piece of equipment in the facility will be brand new, providing the perfect platform from which

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