Because of the pervasive nature of environmental problems, the overlap and interrelationship between the chemical and environmental engineering disciplines have become unavoidable. Further, many have agreed that environmental engineering involves the application of chemical engineering fundamentals and principles to the environment.

From an academic perspective, environmental engineering programs have traditionally been offered at the graduate level. More recently, formal environmental engineering programs—with the accompanying degree—are being offered at the undergraduate level. As a result, courses similar in content are often offered in both programs. This recent phenomenon has created a need for the development of material concerned with both chemical and environmental engineering calculations. The resulting end product is the Handbook of Chemical and Environmental Engineering Calculations.

As is usually the case in preparing any text, the question of what to include and what to omit has been particularly difficult. However, the problems and solutions in the Handbook attempt to address calculations common to both chemical and environmental engineering. This Handbook provides the reader with nearly 600 solved problems in the chemical and environmental engineering fields. Of the eight parts, two are concerned with chemical engineering and six with environmental engineering. The interrelationship between both fields is emphasized in all parts. Each part is divided into a number of problem sets, each set containing anywhere from 8 to 12 problems and solutions.

This project was a unique undertaking. Rather than prepare a textbook in the usual format—essay material, illustrative examples, nomenclature, bibliography, problems, etc.,—the authors considered writing a calculations handbook that could be used as a self-teaching aid. One of the key features of this book is that the solutions to the problems are presented in a stand-alone manner. Throughout the book, the problems are laid out in such a way as to develop the reader's technical understanding of the subject in question. Each problem contains a title, problem statement, and data and solution, with the more difficult problems located at or near the end of each problem set. Thus, this Handbook offers material not only to individuals with limited technical background but also to those with extensive industrial experience. As such, this Handbook can be used as a text in either a general chemical engineering or environmental engineering course and (perhaps primarily) as a training tool for industry.

The authors cannot claim sole authorship to all the problems and material in this Handbook. The present book has evolved from a host of sources including: exam problem prepared by Dr. Sum Marié Flynn for her undergraduate Process Control course; notes, homework problems and exam problems prepared by J. Jeris for graduate environmental engineering courses; notes, homework problems, and exam problems prepared by L. Theodore for several chemical and environmental engineering graduate and undergraduate courses; problems and solutions drawn (with permission) from numerous Theodore Tutorials; and problems and solutions developed by faculty participants during National Science Foundation (NSF) Undergraduate Faculty Enhancement Program (UFEP) workshops.

One of the objectives of the NSF workshops included the development of illustrative examples by the faculty. Approximately 40 out of the nearly 600 problems provided in this Handbook were drawn, in part, from the original work of these faculty. We would like to acknowledge the following professors whose problems, in original or edited form, are included on this Handbook. (The problem numbers are noted in parenthesis alongside each name.)

Prof. William Auberle; Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northern Arizona University (ENC.l, ULT.4)

Dr. Howard Bein; Chemistry, U.S. Merchant Marine Academy, (ISO.2, ISO.3) Dr. Seymour Block; Chemical Engineering, University of Florida (MED.8) Dr. Ihab Farag; Chemical Engineering, University of New Hampshire (MED.9) Dr. Kumar Ganesan; Environmental Engineering, Montana Tech of the University of Montana (ISO.6, IAQ.4, IAQ.5, IAQ.6) Dr. David James; Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Nevada at

Las Vegas (HZA.2, ENC.4, ULT.5) Dr. Christopher Koroneos; Chemical Engineering, Columbia University (ECO.2,

ECO.4, ECO.5, ECO.8) Dr. SoonSik Lim; Chemical Engineering, Youngstown State University (CHR.7) Dr. Sean X. Liu; Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Berkley (ULT.6, ECO.6, MUN.5, MUN.6, MED.6) Dr. P.M. Lutchmansingh; Petroleum Engineering, Montana Tech of the University of Montana (ECO.7) Dr. Suwanchai Nitisoravut; Civil Engineering, University of North Carolina at

Charlotte (ULT.7, ISO.5, CHR.5) Dr. Holly Peterson; Environmental Engineering, Montana Tech of the University of Montana (IAQ.l)

Dr. Lisa Reidl; Civil Engineering, University of Wisconsin at Platteville (RCY.7) Dr. Carol Reifschneider; Science and Math, Montana State University (ISO.4) Dr. Dennis Ryan; Chemistry, Hofstra University, (CHR.6) Dr. Dilip K. Singh; Chemical Engineering, Youngstown University (ENC.10)


Dr. David Stevens, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Utah State University (HRA.4, WQA.10)

Dr. Bruce Thomson; Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico (CHR.8) Dr. Frank Worley; Chemical Engineering, University of Houston (MED. 7) Dr. Ronald Wukash; Civil Engineering, Purdue University (MED. 10) Dr. Poa-Chiang (PC) Yuan; Civil Engineering, Jackson State University (ISO.l, MUN.7, MUN.8, HRA.l, HRA.2)

During the preparation of this Handbook, the authors were ably assisted in many ways by a number of graduate students in Manhattan College's Chemical Engineering Master's Program. These students contributed much time and energy researching and classroom testing various problems in the book.

Two other sources that were employed in preparing the problems included numerous Theodore Tutorials (plus those concerned with the professional engineering exam) and the Wilcox and Theodore 1999 Wiley-Interscience text, Engineering and Environmental Ethics. Finally, the authors wish to acknowledge the National Science Foundation for supporting several faculty workshops (described above) that produced a number of problems appearing in this Handbook.

Somehow the editor usually escapes acknowledgment. We were particularly fortunate to have Bob Esposito ("Espo" to us) of John Wiley & Sons serve as our editor. He had the vision early on to realize the present need and timeliness for a handbook of this nature.

Joseph P. Reynolds John S. Jeris Louis Theodore

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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