V2gDSs Sf a ff b

where f is the friction factor for fluid alone. If the value of Vsm found from the nomographic chart exceeds the value of (Vsm)max from Eq. 19 the latter value should be used

Fully Stratified Coarse-Particle Transport Fully-stratified flow occurs where almost all of the particles travel as contact load (i.e. fluid suspension is ineffective). The ratio of particle diameter to pipe diameter is of major importance in determining the presence of this flow type, which does not normally occur for d/D ratios less than 0.015. Fully-stratified flow is less likely if the particles are broadly graded, especially if there is a significant homogeneous fraction (i.e. a significant fraction of particles smaller than 200 mesh/75 mm). Calculations made for narrow-graded slurries with water as a carrier fluid indicate fully-stratified behavior for values of d/D above 0.018.

Although the actual relationship of the detailed force-balance analysis cannot be expressed in closed form, simple approximating functions can be fitted to match the output of the detailed model. Wilson & Addie (1995) proposed the following expression for approximating fully-stratified flow:

Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable.

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