Types Of Steam Turbines

Single-Stage Turbines A single-stage steam turbine is one in which the conversion of the kinetic energy to mechanical work occurs with a single expansion of the steam in the turbine—from inlet steam pressure to exhaust steam pressure.

A single-stage turbine may have one or more rows of rotating buckets that absorb the velocity energy of the steam resulting from the single expansion of the steam.

Single-stage turbines are available in wheel diameters of 9 to 28 in (22 to 71 cm). The overall efficiency of a turbine for a particular operating speed and steam conditions is normally dependent on the wheel diameter. The efficiency will generally increase with an increase in wheel size, and therefore the steam rate will be less (for the more usual speeds and steam conditions).

The larger-wheel-diameter steam turbines can be furnished with more nozzles to provide increased steam flow capacity and consequently greater power capabilities. The larger-wheel-diameter turbines are therefore furnished with larger steam connections, valves, shafts, bearings, and so on. Consequently the size of the turbine will generally increase with increases in power rating.

Multiple-Stage Turbines A multiple-stage turbine is one in which the conversion of the energy occurs with two or more expansions of the steam in the turbine. The number of stages (steam expansions) is a function of three basic parameters: thermodynamics, mechanical design, and cost. The thermodynamic considerations include the available energy and speed. The mechanical considerations include speed, steam pressure, steam temperature, and so on, most of which are material limits. Cost considerations include the number, type, and size of the stages; the number of governor-controlled valves; the cost of steam; and the number of years used as a basis for the cost evaluation.

The two factors generally used in selecting multistage turbines are initial cost and steam rate. Because these two factors are a function of the total number of stages, the application becomes a factor of stage selection. The initial cost increases with the number of stages, but the steam rate generally improves.

Multiple-stage turbines are normally used to drive pumps when the cost of steam or the available supply of steam requires turbine efficiencies greater than these available with a single-stage turbine, or when the steam flow required to develop the desired rating exceeds the capability of single-stage turbines.

Multiple-stage turbines can be furnished with a single or multiple governor valves. A single governor valve is often of the same design whether used in a single-stage or multiple-stage turbine and generally has the same maximum steam flow, pressure, and temperature parameters. Multiple valves are used when the parameters for a single valve are exceeded or to obtain improved efficiency, particularly at reduced power outputs.

Shaft Orientation Some steam turbines, particularly single-stage turbines, can be furnished with vertical downward shaft extensions. The application of such turbines can require considerable coordination between the pump and the turbine manufacturer to assure an adequate thrust bearing in the turbine, shaft length and details, mounting flange dimensions, and even shaft runout.

Vertical shaft pumps are frequently driven by horizontal turbines through a right-angle speed-reduction gear unit.

Direct-Connected and Geared Turbines Steam turbines can be directly connected to the pump shaft so the turbine operates at the pump speed or can drive the pump through a speed-reduction (and even speed-increase) gear unit, in order to permit the turbine to operate at a more efficient speed.

Turbine Stages The two types of turbine stages are impulse and reaction. The turbines discussed in this subsection employ impulse stages because steam turbines driving pumps normally have impulse-type stages.

In the ideal impulse stage, the steam expands only in the fixed nozzles and the kinetic energy is transferred to the rotating buckets as the steam impinges on the buckets while flowing through the passages between them. The steam pressure is constant, and the steam velocity relative to the bucket decreases in the bucket passages.

In a reaction stage, the steam expands in both the fixed nozzles and the rotating buckets. The kinetic energy is transferred to the rotating buckets by the expansion of the steam in the passages between the buckets. The steam pressure decreases as the steam velocity relative to the buckets increases in the bucket passages.

In an impulse stage, the steam can exert an axial force on the buckets as it flows through the blade passages. Although this force is usually referred to as a reaction, the use of the term does not imply a reaction-type stage.

The larger buckets used in the last stages of an impulse-type multistage turbine can be of a free-vortex design—twisted and tapered. Such a bucket is ideally subjected to a nearly pure impulse force at its root and a nearly pure reaction force at its tip, but, in reality, this bucket is a high reaction-design bucket compared with a normal impulse-stage bucket. A steam turbine stage with such a bucket design is still referred to as an impulse stage because the primary conversion of kinetic energy is by a reduction rather than an increase in relative steam velocity.

A reaction turbine has more stages than an impulse turbine for the same application because of the small amount of kinetic energy absorbed per stage, and requires a larger thrust bearing or a balancing piston because of the pressure drop across the moving blades. The small pressure drop per stage and the pressure drop across the moving blades require that the steam-leakage losses be minimized by elaborate sealing between the tips of the nozzle blades and the rotor, and the tips of the moving blades and the casing.

The small pressure differential across the rotating blades of an impulse stage results in smaller thrust bearings and no close blade-tip clearances. Consequently impulse turbines can be started more quickly without thermal-expansion damage, and their stage efficiencies remain relatively constant over the life of the turbine.

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Survival Treasure

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