Total

22,900

45,400

22,900

FIGURE 10 Diagram of typical permissible pipe stresses and moments for a radially split double-casing multistage pump with top suction and discharge (1 N = 0.225 lb; 1 N • m = 0.737 ft • lb).

FIGURE 10 Diagram of typical permissible pipe stresses and moments for a radially split double-casing multistage pump with top suction and discharge (1 N = 0.225 lb; 1 N • m = 0.737 ft • lb).

imposed on the pump by the piping. A typical diagram is illustrated in Figure 10 for a radially split double-casing multistage pump with top suction and discharge.

Expansion Joints Expansion joints are sometimes used in the discharge and suction piping to avoid transmitting any piping strains caused by misalignment or by expansion when hot liquids are handled. On occasion, expansion joints are formed by looping the pipe. More often, they are of the slip-joint or corrugated-diaphragm type. However, they transmit to the pump a force equal to the area of the expansion joint times the pressure in the pipe. These forces can be of very significant magnitude, and it is impractical to design the pump casings, baseplates, and so on to withstand them. Consequently, when expansion joints are used, a suitable pipe anchor must be installed between them and the pump proper. Alternately, tie rods can be used to prevent the forces from being transmitted to the pump.

Suction Strainers Except for certain special designs, pumps are not intended to handle liquid containing foreign matter. If the particles are sufficiently large, such foreign matter can clog the pump, reduce its capacity, or even render it altogether incapable of pumping. Small particles of foreign matter may cause damage by lodging between close running clearances. Therefore, proper suction strainers may be required in the suction lines of pumps not specially designed to handle foreign matter.

In such an installation, the piping must first be thoroughly cleaned and flushed. The recommended practice is to flush all piping to waste before connecting it to the pump. Then a temporary strainer of appropriate size should be installed in the suction line as close to the pump as possible. This temporary strainer may have a finer mesh than the permanent strainer installed after the piping has been thoroughly cleaned of all possible mill scale or other foreign matter. The size of the mesh is generally recommended by the pump manufacturer. For further details on strainers, see Sections 8.1 and 10.1.

Venting and Draining Vent valves are generally installed at one or more high points of the pump casing waterways to provide a means of escape for air or vapor trapped in the casing. These valves are used during the priming of the pump or during operation if the pump should become air- or vapor-bound. In most cases, these valves need not be piped up away from the pump because their use is infrequent, and the vented air or vapors can be allowed to escape into the surrounding atmosphere. On the other hand, vents from pumps handling flammable, toxic, or corrosive fluids must be connected in such a way that they endanger neither the operating personnel nor the installation. The suction vents of pumps taking liquids from closed vessels under vacuum must be piped to the source of the pump suction above the liquid level.

All drain and drip connections should be piped to a point where the leakage can be disposed of or collected for reuse if worth reclaiming.

Warm-Up Piping When it is necessary for a pump to come up to operating temperature before it is started up or to keep it ready to start at rated temperature, provision should be made for a warm-up flow to pass through the pump. There are a number of arrangements used to accomplish this. If the pump operates under positive pressure on the suction, the pumped liquid can be permitted to drain out through the pump casing drain connection to some point at a pressure lower than the suction pressure (Figure 11). Alternately, some liquid can be made to flow back from the discharge header through a jumper line around the check valve into the pump and out into the suction header (Figure 12). An orifice is provided in this jumper line to regulate the amount of warm-up flow. Care must be exercised in such an installation to maintain the suction valve open (unless the warm-up line valve is closed, as when the pump is to be dismantled) lest the entire pump, suction valve, and suction piping be subjected to full discharge pressure.

The manufacturer's recommendations should be sought in all cases as to the best means of providing an adequate warm-up procedure. Care must be taken to ensure that the pump is warmed uniformly. Stratification of the warm-up flow, or inadequate warm-up flow volume, can result in casing distortion or rotor bowing, or both.4

relief valves Positive displacement pumps, such as rotary and reciprocating pumps, can develop discharge pressures much in excess of their maximum design pressures. To protect these pumps against excessive pressures when the discharge is throttled or shut off, a pressure relief valve might be used. Some pumps are provided with internal integral relief valves, but unless operation against a closed discharge is both infrequent and of very

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Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable.

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