The Pumping System

The piping and equipment through which the liquid flows to and from the pump constitute the pumping system. Only the length of the piping containing liquid controlled by the bar = 15 Pa.

2Work per unit weight mass, rather than weight force, is sometimes called specific delivery work; it has the units of newton-meters per kilogram and is equal to total head multiplied by g, the gravitation constant.

FIGURE 1 Length of system controlled by pump
FIGURE 2 Branch-line pumping system
FIGURE 3 Pumps in series and in parallel

action of the pump is considered part of the system. A pump and the limit of its system length are shown in Figure 1.

The pump suction and discharge piping can consist of branch lines, as shown in Figure 2. There can be more than one pump in a pumping system. Several pumps can be piped together in series or in parallel or both, as shown in Figure 3. When there is more than one pump, the flow through the system is determined by the combined performance of all the pumps.

The system through which the liquid is pumped offers resistance to flow for several reasons. Flow through pipes is impeded by friction. If the liquid discharges to a higher elevation or a higher pressure, additional resistance is encountered. The pump must therefore overcome the total system resistance due to friction and, as required, produce an increase in elevation or pressure at the desired rate of flow. System requirements may be such that the pump discharges to a lower elevation or pressure but additional pump head is still required to overcome pipe friction and obtain the desired rate of flow.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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