## Steam Consumption And Water Horsepower

After determining the proper size of other pump types, the next concern usually is to calculate the maximum brake horsepower so the proper size of driver can be selected. With a steam pump, the next step is usually to determine the steam consumption. This must be known to ensure that the boiler generating the steam is large enough to supply the steam required by the pump as well as that required for all its other services.

To determine the steam consumption, it is necessary first to calculate the water horsepower as follows:

In SI units

In USCS units where whp = water horsepower

Q = pump capacity, gpm (m3/h) Pl = net liquid pressure, lb/in2 (bar)

FIGURE 25 Approximate steam consumption for steam pumps (pounds of steam per water horsepower-hour = 1.644 kg of steam per water kilowatt-hour; water horsepower per cylinder = 1.341 wkW per cylinder; ft/s = 0.3047 m/s; in = 25.44 mm) (Hydraulic Institute Standards, 12th Edition, 1969—out of print)

A steam consumption chart (Figure 25) affords a means of quickly obtaining an approximate figure for the steam rate of direct-acting steam pumps. For duplex pumps, divide the water horsepower by 2 before applying it to the curves. These curves were made up on the basis of water horsepower per cylinder; if the above procedure is not followed, the results will be inaccurate.

Starting with the water horsepower per cylinder:

1. Move vertically to the curve for steam cylinder size.

2. Move horizontally to the curve for 50-ft/min (15.15-m/min) piston speed. This is the basic curve from which the other curves were plotted.

3. Move vertically to the piston speed at which the pump will run.

4. Move horizontally to the steam rate scale and read it in pounds per water horsepower-hour (kilograms per kilowatt-hour).

5. Multiply the result by total water horsepower to obtain the steam rate in pounds per hour (kilograms per hour).

For steam cylinders with diameters as shown, but with longer stroke, deduct 1% from the steam rate for each 20% of additional stroke. Thus, a 12 X 24 steam end will have a steam consumption about 5% less than a 12 X 12 steam end. For 54 X 5 and 42 X 4 steam ends, the 6 X 6 curve will give approximate figures. For cylinders of intermediate diameters, interpolate between the curves.

To correct for superheated steam, deduct 1% for each 10° of superheat. To correct for back pressure, multiply the steam rate by a correction factor equal to a p + bp y/2

where P = net steam pressure to drive pump, lb/in2 (bar) BP = back pressure, lb/in2 (bar)

Direct-acting steam pumps have inherently high steam consumption. This is not necessarily a disadvantage, however, when the exhaust steam can be used for heating the boiler-feed water or for building heating or process work. Because these pumps can operate with a considerable range of back pressure, it is possible to recover nearly all the heat in the steam required to operate them. Because they do not use steam expansively, they are actually metering devices rather than heat engines and as such consume heat from the steam only as the heat is lost via radiation from the steam end of the pump. These pumps act, in effect, like a reducing valve to deliver lower pressure steam that contains nearly all its initial heat.

## Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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