Section Ll

FIGURE 16A Parshall flume dimensions (sheet 1 of 2)

sheet metal, or other desired materials. Large flumes are usually constructed on the site, but smaller flumes may be purchased as prefabricated structures to be installed in one piece. Some flumes are available as lightweight shells, which are made rigid and immobile by placing concrete outside the walls and beneath the bottom. Larger flumes are used in rivers and large canals and streams; smaller ones are used for measuring farm deliveries or for row requirements in the farmer's field.

Flumes can operate in two modes: free flow and submerged flow. In free flow, the discharge depends solely upon the width of the throat W and the depth of water Ha at the gage point in the converging section (Figures 16 and 17). Free-flow conditions in the flume are similar to those that occur at a weir or spillway crest in that water passing over the crest is not slowed by downstream conditions.

In submerged flow, other factors are operative. In most installations, when the discharge is increased above a critical value, the resistance to flow in the downstream channel becomes sufficient to reduce the velocity, increase the flow depth, and cause a backwater effect at the Parshall flume. It might be expected that the discharge would begin to be reduced as soon as the backwater level Hb exceeds the elevation of the flume crest; however, this is not the case. Calibration tests show that the discharge is not reduced until the submergence ratio Hb/Ha (expressed in percent) exceeds the following values:

50% for flumes 1, 2, and 3 in (25, 50, and 75 mm) wide 60% for flumes 6 and 9 in (152 and 229 mm) wide 70% for flumes 1 to 8 ft (0.3 to 2.4 m) wide 80% for flumes 8 to 50 ft (2.4 to 15.2 m) wide

The discharge equations for free flow over flumes are as follows. The equation which expresses the relationship between upstream head Ha and discharge Q for widths W from 1 to 8 ft (0.3 to 2.4 m) is

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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