In the evolution of the gas turbine as a prime mover, various organizations have put forth standard conditions of inlet temperature and elevation to allow direct comparison of various gas turbines.

Four common standards exist:

ISO (International Standards Organization): sea level and 59°F (15°C)

NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association): 1000 ft (304.8 m) above sea level and 80°F (27°C)

CIMAC (Congres International des Machines a Combustion): sea level and 59°F (15°C) Site: actual elevation and design temperature at installation site

With the evolution of higher combustion temperatures and with the greater need for power over relatively short daily periods, new ratings have developed: emergency (maximum intermittent), peaking (intermittent), and base load. These classifications are based on the number of hours per unit of time that a gas turbine is operated and are related to the material used in the power turbine blading. A common standard is to use materials suitable for 100,000 h of continuous operation. Higher temperatures are permitted, but at the sacrifice of the life of the material and an increase in maintenance costs.

In a pump-driving application, the cycle of operations should be considered in specifying a gas turbine driver. A typical curve of gas turbine output as a function of inlet temperature (Figure 7) clearly indicates the necessity of specifying an accurate design temperature. Figure 8 is a typical correction curve for altitude.

Survival Treasure

Survival Treasure

This is a collection of 3 guides all about survival. Within this collection you find the following titles: Outdoor Survival Skills, Survival Basics and The Wilderness Survival Guide.

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