## Rate Of Flow

FIGURE 10 Construction of system total-head curve head for the same flow. When a pump is being purchased, it should be specified that the pump head-capacity curve intersect the system-head curve at the desired flow rate. This intersection should be at the pump's best efficiency capacity or very close to it.

The system-head curve for Example 1 is shown in Figure 11. This assumes that the suction and discharge liquid levels are 5 ft (1.5 m) below and 50 ft (15 m) above the datum plane, respectively, and do not vary with flow. The pressure in the discharge tank is also independent of flow and is 100 lb/in3 (689.5 kPa) gage. These values are therefore fixed system heads. The pipe and fitting losses are assumed to vary with flow as a square function. The length of the pumping system is from point 1 to point 2. The difference in heads at these points plus the frictional losses at various flow rates are the total system head and the head required by a pump for the different flows. It is necessary to calculate the total system head for only one flow rate—say, design—which in this example is 1000 gpm (227 m3/h). The total head at other flow conditions is the fixed system head plus the variable system head multiplied by (gpm/1000)2 (m3/h 227)2. If Example 1 is an existing system, the total head may be calculated by using gages at the pump suction and discharge connections. The total head measured will then be the head at the intersection of the pump and system curves, as shown in Figure 11. In this example, a correctly purchased pump would produce a total head of 372 ft (113 m) at the design flow of 1000 gpm (227 m3/h).

In systems that are open-ended and in which there is a decrease in elevation from inlet to outlet, a portion of the system-head curve will be negative (Figure 12). In this example, the pump is used to increase gravity flow. Without a pump in the system, the negative resistance, or static head, is the driving head that moves the liquid through the system. Steady-state gravity flow is sustained at the flow rate corresponding to zero total system head (negative static head plus system resistance equals zero). If a flow is required at any rate greater than that which gravity can produce, a pump is required to overcome the additional system resistance.

For additional information concerning the construction of system-head curves for flow in branch lines, refer to Section 8.2.

## Survival Treasure

This is a collection of 3 guides all about survival. Within this collection you find the following titles: Outdoor Survival Skills, Survival Basics and The Wilderness Survival Guide.

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