R2

= outer face radius, in (m)

Ri

= inner face radius, in (m)

Negative leakage indicates flow from the face's outer diameter to the inner diameter. The effect of centrifugal force from one of the rotating sealing planes is very small and can be neglected in normal pump applications. The gap between the seal face is a function of the materials of construction, flatness, and the liquid being sealed. The face gap can range from 20 x 10-6 to 50 x 10-6 in (0.508 x 10-6 to 1.27 x 10-6 m).

Contacting Seal Operating Envelope Every seal has an operating envelope. The basic envelope for a contacting seal is shown in Figure 12. The upper limits are defined by wear of the seal faces, usually defined by a pressure-velocity limit. The fluid being sealed should be cooled so the liquid at the seal faces does not flash. Operating within the envelope will result in excellent seal performance.

Pressure

PV Limit

Sealed pressure

Maximum operating temperature of seal at p

FIGURE 12 Operating envelope for a contacting seal

PV Limit

Sealed pressure

Maximum operating temperature of seal at p

FIGURE 12 Operating envelope for a contacting seal

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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