Molded Cups

FIGURE 19 Body-and-follower piston with molded FIGURE 20 Stem-guided disk valve
FIGURE 21 Wing-guided valve FIGURE 22 Semispherical valve

installed in the center of the stuffing box with packing rings on both sides of it. A drilled hole is provided through which a lubricant, grease or oil, can be injected into the lantern ring from the outside of the stuffing box. At higher temperatures, approximately 500°F (260°C) or higher, a cooling water jacket is added to the outside of the stuffing box or as a spacer between the stuffing box and the liquid cylinder. The purpose of the cooling water jacket is to extend packing life by keeping the packing cool.

The liquid end valves of all direct-acting steam pumps are self-acting, in contrast to the mechanically operated slide valves in the steam end. The liquid end valves act like check valves; they are opened by the liquid passing through and are closed by a spring plus their weight.

Liquid end valves are roughly divided into three types: the disk valve for general service and thin liquids, the wing-guided valves for high pressures, and either the ball or the semispherical valve for abrasive and viscous liquids.

The valve shown in Figure 20 is typical of the disk type. This stem-guided design is commonly used in the cap-and-valve plate design. For hot-water boiler-feed and general service, the disk, seat, and stem are usually made of bronze, although other alloys may also be used. For lower temperatures and pressures, the disk may be made of rubber, which has the advantage of always forming a tight seal with the valve seat.

The wing-guided valve shown in Figure 21 is typical of the design use for high pressures. It derives its name from the wings on the bottom of the valve, which guide it in its seat. The beveled seating surfaces on the valve and seat tend to form a tighter seal than the flat seating surfaces on a disk valve. There is also less danger that a solid foreign particle in the liquid will be trapped between the seat and the valve. This type of valve is commonly made from a heat-treated chrome-alloy-steel forging, although a cast hard bronze and other materials may be used.

The ball valve, as its name suggests, is a ball that acts like a check valve. It is usually not spring-loaded, but guides and lift stops are provided as necessary to control its operation. The ball may be made of rubber, bronze, stainless steel, or other materials as service conditions require. The semispherical valve (Figure 22) is spring-loaded and can therefore be operated at higher speeds than the ball valve. Both the ball and the semispherical type have the advantage of having no obstructions to flow in the valve seat (the disk valve seat has ribs and the wing-guided valve has vanes which obstruct the flow). The one large opening in the seat and the smooth spherical surface of ball and semispherical valves minimize the resistance to flow of viscous liquids. These types are also used for liquids with suspended solids because their rolling seating action prevents trapping of the solids between the seat and valve.

Plunger-Type Liquid Ends As mentioned previously, plunger-type pumps are used where dependability is of prime importance, even when the pump is operated continuously for long periods and where the pressure is very high. Cast liquid end plunger pumps are used for low and moderate pressures. Forged liquid end pumps (Figure 23), which are the most common plunger types, are used for high pressures and have been built to handle pressures in excess of 10,000 lb/in2 (69 MPa).

Most of these designs have opposed plungers; that is, one plunger operating into the inboard end of the liquid cylinder and one into the outboard end. The plungers are solidly secured to inboard and outboard plunger crossheads. The inboard and outboard plunger crossheads are joined by side rods positioned on each side of the cylinder. With this arrangement, each plunger is single-acting; that is, it makes only one pressure stroke for each complete reciprocating cycle. The pump, however, is double-acting because the plungers are connected by the side rods.

PLUNGER PUMP LIQUID END MATERIALS The liquid cylinder of a forged liquid end plunger-type pump is most commonly made from forged steel, although bronze, Monel, chrome alloy, and stainless steels are also used. The stuffing boxes and valve chambers are usually integral with the cylinder (Figure 23), which is desirable for higher temperatures and pressures because high-temperature joints are minimized.

The liquid plungers may be made of a number of materials. The plungers must be as hard and smooth as possible to reduce friction and to resist wear by the plunger packing. Hardened chrome-alloy steels and steel coated with hard-metal alloys or ceramics are most commonly used.

The stuffing box packing used will vary widely depending upon service conditions. A soft, square packing cut to size may be used. However, solid molded rings of square, V-lip, or U-lip design are commonly used at higher pressures. Oil or grease is frequently injected into a lantern ring in the center of the stuffing box to reduce friction and reduce packing and plunger wear.

The liquid valves may be of any of the types or materials described above. However, the wing-guided valve with beveled seating surfaces is the most common because it is most suitable for high pressures.

Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable.

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