Liquid Cylinder

FIGURE 3 Schematic of the liquid end of a reciprocating pump during the discharge stroke

LIQUID CYLINDER'* FIGURE 4 Schematic of a double-acting liquid end

to a liquid cylinder liner by pistons with packing. It has two suction and two discharge valves, one of each on each side of the piston. The piston is moved by a piston rod. The piston rod packing prevents liquid from leaking out of the cylinder. When the piston rod and piston are moved in the direction shown, the right side of the piston is on a discharge stroke and the left side of the piston is simultaneously on a suction stroke. The piston packing must seal tightly to the cylinder liner to prevent leakage of liquid from the high-pressure right side to the low-pressure left side.

The piston must be stopped before it hits the right side of the cylinder. The motion of the piston is then reversed so the left side of the piston begins its discharge stroke and the right side begins its suction stroke.

A reciprocating pump is not complete with a liquid end only; it must also have a driving mechanism to provide motion and force to the plunger or piston. The two most common driving mechanisms are a reciprocating steam engine and a crank-and-throw device. Those pumps using the steam engine are called direct-acting steam pumps. Those pumps using the crank-and-throw device are called power pumps. Power pumps must be connected to an external rotating driving force, such as an electric motor, steam turbine, or internal combustion engine.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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