FIGURE 24 Transient system head as a result of liquid acceleration and system friction when a propeller pump is started with an open valve

where L = length of constant-cross-section conduit, ft (m) AY = velocity change, ft/s (m/s) g = acceleration of gravity, 32.17 ft/s2 (9.807 m/s2) Ai = time interval, s

To calculate the time to accelerate a centrifugal pump from rest or from some initial speed to a final speed, and to estimate the pump head variation during this interim, a trial-and-error solution may be used. Divide the speed change into several increments of equal no-flow heads, such as OGHIKL in Figure 24. For the first incremental speed change, point O to point N1, estimate the total system head, point M, between G and A. Next estimate the total system head, point X, at the average speed for this first incremental speed change. These points are shown in Figure 24. Calculate the time in seconds for this incremental speed change to take place using the equation

where XWK2 = total pump and motor rotor weight moment of inertia, W = weight (force), K = radius of gyration, lb • ft2 AN = incremental speed change, rpm Td = motor torque at average speed, ft • lb Tp = pump torque at average speed, ft • lb in SI units Ai = 9.55(Td - Tp) (llb)

where XMK2 = total pump and motor rotor mass moment of inertia, M = weight (mass), K= radius of gyration, kg • m2

AN = incremental speed change, rpm

In SI units, when diameter of gyration D is used rather than radius of gyration K, and MD2 = 4MK2, then


Calculate the acceleration head required to change the flow in the system from point O to point M using Eq. 10 and time from Eq. 11. Add acceleration head to frictional head at the assumed average flow, and if this value is correct, it will fall on the average pump head-capacity curve, point X. Adjust points M and X until these assumed flows result in the total acceleration and frictional heads agreeing with flow X at the average speed. Repeat this procedure for other increments of speed change, adding incremental times to get total accelerating time to bring the pump up to its final speed. Plot system head versus average flow for each incremental speed change during this transient period, as shown in Figure 24.

Figures 25 and 26 illustrate how driver and pump torques can be determined from their respective speed-torque curves. Figure 25 is a family of curves that represents the torques required to produce flow against different heads without acceleration of the liquid or pump for the various speeds selected. Pump torque for any reduced speed can be calculated from the full-speed curve using the relation that torque varies as the second power and flow varies as the first power of the speed ratio. Point X is the torque at the average speed and the trial average flow during the first incremental speed change,

FIGURE 25 Transient total pump torque as a result of liquid acceleration and system friction when a propeller pump is started with an open valve. Pump head characteristics are shown in Figure 24.

which is adjusted for different assumed conditions. Figure 26 shows a typical squirrel-cage induction motor speed-torque curve, and, for the purpose of illustration, it has been selected to have the same torque rating as the pump requires at full speed (approximately 97% synchronous speed). Point X in this figure is the motor torque at the average speed during the first incremental speed change. In Figure 26, the developed torque curve for the different speeds shown in Figure 25 is redrawn as the total frictional and inertial pump torque Tp. For the conditions used in this example, and as shown in Figure 26, after approximately 88% synchronous speed, very little excess torque (TD — Tp) is available for accelerating the pump and motor rotor inertia. However, as long as an induction motor has adequate torque to drive the pump at the normal condition, full speed will be reached providing the time-current demand can be tolerated. A synchronous motor, on the other hand, may not have sufficient torque to pull into step. Liquid acceleration decreases as motor torque decreases, adjusting to the available excess motor torque. The pump speed changes very slowly during the final period. Figure 26 also shows the motor current for the different speeds and torques.

A motor having a higher than normal pump torque rating or a motor having high starting torque characteristics will reduce the starting time, but higher heads will be produced during the acceleration period. Note, however, that heads produced cannot exceed shutoff at any speed. The total torque input to the pump shaft is equal to the sum of the torques required to overcome system friction, liquid inertia, and pump rotor inertia during acceleration. Torque at the pump shaft will therefore follow the motor speed-torque curve less the torque required to overcome the motor's rotor inertia. To reduce the starting inertial pump head to an acceptable amount, if desired, other alternative starting schemes can be used. A short bypass line from the pump discharge back to the suction can be provided to divert flow from the main system. The bypass valve is closed slowly after the motor reaches full speed. A variable-speed or a two-speed motor will reduce the inertial head by controlling motor torque and speed, thereby increasing the accelerating time.

This procedure for developing the actual system head and pump torque, including liquid inertia, becomes more complex if the pump must employ a discharge valve. To avoid high pump starting heads and torques, the discharge valve must be partially open on starting and then opened a sufficient amount before full speed is reached. The valve resistance must be added to the system friction and inertia curves if an exact solution is required.

FIGURE 27 Pumping system using a siphon for head recovery

Siphon Head Between any two points having the same elevation in a pumping system, no head is lost because of piping elevation changes because the net change in elevation is zero. If the net change in elevation between two points is not zero, additional pump head is required if there is an increase in elevation and less head is required if there is a decrease in elevation.

When piping is laid over and under obstacles with no net change in elevation, no pumping head is required to sustain flow other than that needed to overcome frictional and minor losses. As the piping rises, the liquid pressure head is transformed to elevation head, and the reverse takes place as the piping falls. A pipe or other closed conduit that rises and falls is called a siphon, and one that falls and rises is called an inverted siphon. The siphon principle is valid provided the conduit flows full and free of liquid vapor and air so the densities of the liquid columns are alike. It is this requirement that determines the limiting height of a siphon for complete recovery because the liquid can vaporize under certain conditions.

Pressure in a siphon is minimum at the summit, or just downstream from it, and Bernoulli's equation can be used to determine if the liquid pressure is above or below vapor pressure. Referring to Figure 27, observe the following. The absolute pressure head Hs in feet (meters) at the top of the siphon is hs — hb _ Zs + hf (s-2) _ *-12)

where HB — barometric pressure head of liquid pumped, ft (m)

ZS — siphon height to top of conduit ( — Z1 if no seal well is used), ft (m)

hf (s _ 2) — frictional and minor losses from S to 2 (or 3 if no seal well is used), including exit velocity head loss at 2 (or 3), ft (m)

The absolute pressure head at the summit can also be calculated using conditions in the up leg by adding the barometric pressure head to the pump head (TH) and deducting the distance from suction level to the top of the conduit (Z4), the frictional loss in the up leg (hf (1 _ S)), and the velocity head at the summit. If the suction level is higher than the discharge level and flow is by gravity, the absolute pressure head at the summit is found as above and TH — 0.

Whenever Z1 in Figure 27 is so high that it exceeds the maximum siphon capability, a seal well is necessary to increase the pressure at the top of the siphon above vapor pressure. Note Z1 _ ZS represents an unrecoverable head and increases the pumping head. Water has a vapor pressure of 0.77 ft (23.5 cm) at 68°F (20°C) and theoretically a 33.23-ft-high (10.13-cm) siphon is possible with a 34-ft (10.36-m) water barometer. In practice, higher water temperatures and lower barometric pressures limit the height of siphons used in condenser cooling water systems to 26 to 28 ft (8 to 8.5 m). The siphon height can be found by using Eq. 12 and letting HS equal the vapor pressure in feet (meters).

In addition to recovering head in systems such as condenser cooling water, thermal dilution, and levees, siphons are also used to prevent reverse flow after pumping is stopped by use of an automatic vacuum breaker located in the summit. Often siphons are used solely to eliminate the need for valves or flap gates.

In open-ended pumping systems, siphons can be primed by external means of air removal. Unless the siphon is primed initially upon starting, a pump must fill the system and provide a minimum flow to induce siphon action. During this filling period and until the siphon is primed, the siphon head curve must include this additional siphon filling head, which must be provided by the pump. Pumps in siphon systems are usually low-head, and they may not be capable of filling the system to the top of the siphon or of filling it with adequate flow. Low-head pumps are high-specific-speed and require more power at reduced flows than during normal pumping. Figure 28 illustrates the performance of a typical propeller pump when priming a siphon system and during normal operation.


FIGURE 28 Transient system total head priming a siphon


FIGURE 28 Transient system total head priming a siphon

When a pump and driver are to be selected to prime a siphon system, it is necessary to estimate the pump head and the power required to produce the minimum flow needed to start the siphon.

The minimum flow required increases with the length and the diameter and decreases with the slope of the down-leg pipe.2 Prior to the removal of all the air in the system, the pump is required to provide head to raise the liquid up to and over the siphon crest. Head above the crest is required to produce a minimum flow similar to flow over a broad-crested weir. This weir head may be an appreciable part of the total pump head if the pump is low-head and large-capacity. A conservative estimate of the pump head would include a full conduit above the siphon crest. In reality, the down leg must flow partially empty before it can flow full, and it is accurate enough to estimate that the depth of liquid above the siphon crest is at critical depth for the cross section. Table 1 can be used to estimate critical depth in circular pipes, and Figure 29 can be used to calculate the cross-sectional area of the filled pipe to determine the velocity at the siphon crest.

Until all the air is removed and all the piping becomes filled, the down leg is not part of the pumping system, and its frictional and minor losses are not to be added to the maximum system-head curve to fill and prime the siphon shown in Figure 28. The total head TH in feet (meters) to be produced by the pump in Figure 27 until the siphon is primed is

distance between suction level and centerline liquid at siphon crest, ft (m) frictional and minor losses from 1 to S, ft (m)

velocity head at crest using actual liquid depth, approx. critical depth, ft (m)

Use of Eq. 13 permits plotting the maximum system-head curve to fill and prime the siphon for different flow rates. The pump priming flow is the intersection of the pump total head curve and this system-head curve. The pump selected must have a driver with power as shown in Figure 28 to prime the system during this transient condition.

For the pumping system shown in Figure 27, after the system is primed, the pump total head reduces to

where Z3


TABLE 1 Values for determining pipe-diameter ratio versus (ft3/s)/d5/2 in circular pipes

Dcrit ~d~

Survival Treasure

Survival Treasure

This is a collection of 3 guides all about survival. Within this collection you find the following titles: Outdoor Survival Skills, Survival Basics and The Wilderness Survival Guide.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment