J F Giddings D R Roll C A Cappellino


additive An additive is any material such as clay, filler, or color added to stock to contribute specific properties.

bleaching Bleach is the process of removing the lignin and other color-forming substances from the stock to render it white. chest A chest is a vessel for storing pulp.

cellulose Cellulose is a carbohydrate that is the primary substance in plant fibers. It is extracted from the plant to make paper products.

consistency Consistency is the proportion by mass of fibers in a mixture of fibers and water.

cooking Cooking is the action of the chemical used to break down lignin bond between cellulose fiber in wood and other organic matter.

deinking Drinking is the process of removing ink particles from recycled paper such as newsprint or magazines.

digester A digester is a pressure vessel used to contain chemical action of cooking chemical and raw cellulose material. Digesters may be of the batch or continuous flow type.

evaporator In the recovery of chemicals from the cooking liquor in a chemical pulp mill, an evaporator is used to concentrate the liquor (remove water) so the concentrated liquor can be incinerated in the recovery furnace.

fiber Fibers are the vascular bundles found in plants that are extracted and used to make paper.

fourdrinier Fourdrinier is the continuous wire upon which pulp or paper sheet is produced.

freeness Freeness is a measure of degree of refinement of stock and, hence, of its ability to drain water.

groundwood Groundwood is a mechanical pulp formed by simple grinding to break down wood structure.

headbox A headbox is a specialized nozzle that takes flow from the fan pump and discharges a uniform layer of white water (stock) onto the forming wire of the paper machine.

kraft process The kraft process is a method of separating cellulose fiber from lignins by using caustic soda in presence of sulfur radical.

lignin Lignin is a generic term used to refer to the complex organic matter present in wood that acts as binding agent for cellulose fibers.

liquor Black liquor: Solution of water plus residual organic matter (or lignins) in the wood after washing of raw stock. Green liquor: solution of smelt from recovery furnace when dissolved in either water or weak washed liquor. White liquor: Solution of caustic soda (or other alkali), sometimes in the presence of a sulfur radical; this is the liquor charged to the digester for cooking.

neutral sulfite Neutral sulfite is made through a cooking process using a solution of about 10% sodium sulfite and 5% caustic soda mixed for cooking wood or agricultural fiber to produce high-yield pulp.

paper Paper is a sheet of cellulose or other fibers formed on a screen from a mixture of fibers in water. Thin absorbent paper is known as tissue; thicker grades of paper are called paperboard.

refining Refining is a mechanical process carried out on stock to improve the ability of the fiber to form paper sheet. Different techniques are employed—some designed to shorten the fiber, others to increase the amount of fibrils (or "whisker") on the fiber.

soda process A soda process is similar to kraft process but uses caustic soda without presence of sulfur.

stock Stock is a generic term for the suspension of cellulose fiber in water or chemicals. Bleached stock: The same after bleaching. Brownstock: The same before bleaching. Raw stock: The product discharged from digester(s) before any washing or other treatment. It is also referred to as pulp.

sulfite process A sulfite process is the method of separating cellulose fiber from lignin with acid. This method is becoming obsolete because of its inherent detrimental impact on the environment.

vat A vat is a semicylindrical mold or container for holding stock during washing or sheet formation.

yield Yield is the percentage of cellulose fiber in the form of pulp produced from a given weight of wood or other raw material. High yield: The same when some lignins are allowed to remain in the finished product.

Survival Treasure

Survival Treasure

This is a collection of 3 guides all about survival. Within this collection you find the following titles: Outdoor Survival Skills, Survival Basics and The Wilderness Survival Guide.

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