Only the sail can contend with the pump for the title of the earliest invention for the conversion of natural energy to useful work, and it is doubtful that the sail takes precedence. Because the sail cannot, in any event, be classified as a machine, the pump stands essentially unchallenged as the earliest form of machine for substituting natural energy for human physical effort.

The earliest pumps we know of are variously known, depending on which culture recorded their description, as Persian wheels, waterwheels, or norias. These devices were all undershot waterwheels containing buckets that filled with water when they were submerged in a stream and that automatically emptied into a collecting trough as they were carried to their highest point by the rotating wheel. Similar waterwheels have continued in existence in parts of the Orient even into the twentieth century.

The best-known of the early pumps, the Archimedean screw, also persists into modern times. It is still being manufactured for low-head applications where the liquid is frequently laden with trash or other solids.

Perhaps most interesting, however, is the fact that with all the technological development that has occurred since ancient times, including the transformation from water power through other forms of energy all the way to nuclear fission, the pump remains probably the second most common machine in use, exceeded in numbers only by the electric motor.

Because pumps have existed for so long and are so widely used, it is hardly surprising that they are produced in a seemingly endless variety of sizes and types and are applied to an apparently equally endless variety of services. Although this variety has contributed to an extensive body of periodical literature, it has also tended to preclude the publication of comprehensive works. With the preparation of this handbook, an effort has been made to create just such a comprehensive source.

Even here, however, it has been necessary to impose a limitation on subject matter. It has been necessary to exclude material uniquely pertinent to certain types of auxiliary pumps that lose their identity to the basic machine they serve and where the user controls neither the specification, purchase, nor operation of the pump. Examples of such pumps would be those incorporated into automobiles or domestic appliances. Nevertheless, these pumps do fall within classifications and types covered in the handbook, and basic information on them may therefore be obtained herein after the type of pump has been identified. Only specific details of these highly proprietary applications are omitted.

Such extensive coverage has required the establishment of a systematic method of classifying pumps. Although some rare types may have been overlooked in spite of all precautions, and obsolete types that are no longer of practical importance have been deliberately omitted, principal classifications and subordinate types are covered in the following section.

Survival Treasure

Survival Treasure

This is a collection of 3 guides all about survival. Within this collection you find the following titles: Outdoor Survival Skills, Survival Basics and The Wilderness Survival Guide.

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