{NPSH2/ NPSH1}x where X varies from 1.5 to 2.5

Mechanical Installation All rotary pumps, particularly rigid rotor pumps, must be installed so no mechanical forces other than those imposed by pump-generated pressures can act to warp or distort the pump chamber or rotating assembly. This is important because relatively small distortions of a few thousandths of an inch can cause interference between rotating and stationary parts and generate high wear rates or pump damage.

To avoid such distortions, the pump must not be installed with overly long, rigid fittings or in such a way that the pump body supports the weight of the piping system. The problem of distortion of clearances in the pump chamber is not as severe for flexible member pumps, but large mechanical forces that distort the pump body may also cause distortions of the mechanical seals and accelerate wear of the bearings. A cardinal rule, then, is that a rotary pump must not be rigidly coupled to the piping system in a way that causes it to support the weight of the piping or otherwise exposes it to any forces from thermal expansion. Poor mechanical installation is the cause of many field problems.

Dry Running Most rotary pumps will be damaged if allowed to run dry. As long as the system provides a positive static pressure on fluid present at the inlet, the pump should prime and not run dry. If a negative inlet gage pressure, or suction lift, is present at the pump inlet, the installation should be checked to ensure airtight seals throughout the entire upstream piping.

The sealing arrangement on the pump must also be checked for any leakage of air or gas into the pump through the seal. If these conditions are satisfied, fluid will enter the pump soon after pump operation starts because of the vacuum generated by pump operation. If these conditions are not met, air or other gases will flow through leaks in the inlet system or seal to satisfy the pump flow rate requirements and the pump will run dry. One safeguard to ensure fluid at the pump inlet is to install a foot valve in the submerged portion of the inlet piping. Once primed, the foot valve will keep fluid in the pump and prevent it from running dry upon subsequent restarting.

Suction Strainers Like most other pumps, rotary pumps last longer when handling clean fluids. Nonetheless, this is an ideal scenario, and the pump will more realistically encounter dirty or abrasive-laden fluids of varying degrees. Fine particles and abrasives will cause wear in the close clearances of the pump, which eventually reduces pump flow rate by increasing the slip through the increased clearances.

As such, all rotary pumps should have a suction strainer to exclude larger materials such as welding slag, scale, rust, chips, rags, bolts, nuts, and so on. Since a suction strainer contributes to suction line losses, this reduces the net inlet pressure available. The finer the filtration, the greater the restriction and the more frequently it must be maintained. This leads to a trade-off between the cost of the added maintenance versus the cost of replacing the worn pump parts earlier than they would be otherwise.

When pumping fluids over 5,000 SSU (1080 centistokes), the finest strainer screen practical is a 16-inch (1.5 mm) perforation. Strainers and filters not only require periodic maintenance, but should also be instrumented accordingly. It is important for the user to provide some means of monitoring, such as a differential pressure gauge or switch, since a clogged strainer will cause the pump to cavitate or even run dry.

Entrained Air and Dissolved Gases An important consideration with rotary pumps is the amount of entrained air or gas in the fluid. It is generally neglected, since a rotary pump cannot become vapor-bound the way a centrifugal pump can. Nonetheless, with entrained air present, there can be a perceived loss in the outlet flow. If the entrained air is a large enough percentage, there may be unacceptable noise and vibration levels as well.

For example, if a fluid contains five percent entrained gas by volume and the suction pressure is atmospheric, the mixture is 95 percent liquid and 5 percent gas. This mixture fills up the moving voids on the inlet side, with 5 percent of the space filled with gas and the remainder with liquid. Therefore, in terms of the amount of liquid handled, the output is reduced directly by the amount of gas present, or 5 percent. Unless this is understood up front, it could lead to a less than satisfactory output flow rate through no direct fault of the pump itself.

Entrained air is common in systems where the liquid is cycled frequently. In many cases, the foaming or air entrainment cannot be avoided, such as with the lubrication system on a large reduction gearbox. Instead, the condition must be known and well understood before selecting a pump for the application.

If dissolved gases (gases different than the fluid's own vapor) are present in the fluid, the effect on the output flow is the same as with entrained gases. This is because the dissolved gases will come out of solution when the pressure is lowered, just as the fluid's own vapor will. This will have the same net effect as the entrained gas and will occupy the available displacement capacity. Although the fluid mass transfer rate will not be affected, this is likely to be small comfort since the measured liquid displacement will be reduced.

Noise Pumps are often the most offensive noise sources in hydraulic machinery. High-pressure pulsations and heavily loaded sliding elements within the pump produce broadband, high-energy airborne noise. Vane, gear, and lobe pumps, however, are among the lowest noise producers of any fixed displacement-type pump. Flow is delivered continuously without the variations that produce noise in conventional hydraulic pumps. Pumping elements utilize a fluid film, reducing the sliding contact, and the visco-elastic properties of the fluids they pump help dampen whatever fluid-borne pressure pulsations are present. These design features are responsible for the wide use of these pumps wherever noise is critical. For instance, they are widely installed on die-casting machines, plastics equipment, presses, and an enormous variety of machine drives and machine tools.

Inlet Pressure The absolute pressure above the vapor pressure available at the pump inlet must always exceed the absolute pressure above the vapor pressure required by the pump. For rotary pumps, this pressure is determined by Hydraulic Institute standards similar to those used for centrifugal pumps.

Another consideration is the effect of a net negative total differential pressure. This can occur when there is a variable positive static pressure on the inlet that exceeds the discharge or outlet pressure. In this case, the flow slip reverses direction and actually adds to the capacity of the pump, causing the total flow through the pump to be greater than the pump displacement capacity.

This can also occur with a stopped pump, and rotary pumps are not effective at stopping the flow through them. In applications where the flow cannot be permitted through an idle pump, or where inlet or outlet static pressure heads exist, valving in the system must be used to stop the flow. For example, in intermittent deliveries where the pump is "lifting" liquid from a source below its inlet without any valving in place to address this when the pump is stopped, the fluid will gradually drain backward through the pump and back to its source. This could create errors in measuring the amount of fluid transferred or cause the pump source (a holding tank) to overflow.

Survival Treasure

Survival Treasure

This is a collection of 3 guides all about survival. Within this collection you find the following titles: Outdoor Survival Skills, Survival Basics and The Wilderness Survival Guide.

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