Cold water;

Same as for

Boiler feed;

Oils and

Mild acids that



RF, with



would attack






iron cylinders





not corrosive

but not acid-





to iron or



corrosive to iron and bronze

hot water


steel; caustic solutions


There are a number of other special piston pump designs for certain services in addition to the most common types just described. One of these special designs is the wet vacuum pump, which features tight-sealing rubber valves that permit the pump to handle liquid and air or non-condensable vapors. Another special design is made of hard, wear-resistant materials to pump cement grout on construction projects. Another design, shown in Figure 16, has no suction valves and is made for handling viscous products such as sugarcane pulp, soap, white lead, printer's ink, and tar. The liquid flows into the cylinder from above through a suction port that is cut off as the piston moves back and forth.

Piston Pump Liquid End Materials and Construction The materials used for piston pump liquid ends vary widely with the liquids handled. Most of the services to which these pumps are applied use one of the common material combinations listed in Table 1.

The liquid cylinder, the largest liquid end component, is most frequently made from cast iron or bronze. However, other materials are also used. Cast steel cylinders are used in refineries and chemical plants for high-pressure and high-temperature applications. Nickel cast steels are used for low-temperature services. Ni-Resist cast iron, chrome-alloy steels, and stainless steels are occasionally used for certain corrosive and abrasive applications, but tend to make pump cost very high. The liquid cylinder heads and valve covers are usually made from the same material as the liquid cylinder.

As was the case in the steam end, a liquid cylinder liner is used to prevent wear and permanent damage to the liquid cylinder. Liners must be replaced periodically when worn by the piston packing to the point that too much fluid leaks from one side of the piston to the other. The liners may be either of a driven-in (or pressed-in) type or of a removable type, which is bolted or clamped in position in the cylinder bore.

The pressed-in type (Figure 7) derives its entire support from the drive fit in the cylinder bore. As a rule, such a liner is relatively thin and is commonly made from a centrifugal casting or a cold-drawn brass tube. After a driven liner is worn to the point where it must be replaced, it is usually removed by chipping a narrow groove along its entire length. This groove is cut as closely as possible through the liner without damaging the wall of the cylinder bore. A flange on the liner fits into a recess at the beginning of the cylinder bore. This flange is held in contact with a shoulder by jack bolts or a spacer between the cylinder head and the end of the liner. Sometimes a packing ring is used between the flange and shoulder for a positive seal. Removable liners are heavier than pressed-in ones.

There are several designs of pistons and piston packings used for various applications. The three most common are as follows:

1. The body-and-follower type of piston with soft fibrous packing or hard-formed composition rings (Figure 17). The packing is installed in the packing space on the piston with a clearance in both length and depth. This clearance permits fluid pressure to act on one end and the inside of the packing to hold and seal it against the other end of the packing space and the cylinder liner bore.

2. The solid piston or, as shown in Figure 18, a body and follower with rings of cast iron or other materials. This type is commonly used in pumps handling oil or other hydrocarbons. The metal rings are split with an angle or step-cut joint. Their natural tension keeps them in contact with the cylinder liner, assisted by fluid pressure under the ring.

3. The cup piston (Figure 19), which consists of a body-and-follower type of piston with molded cups of materials such as rubber reinforced with fabric. Fluid pressure on the inside of the cup presses the lip out against the cylinder bore, forming a tight seal.

The piston rod stuffing boxes are usually made separate from, but of the same material as, the liquid cylinder. When handling liquids with good lubrication properties, the stuffing boxes are usually packed full with a soft, square, braided packing that is compatible with the liquid. When the liquid has poor lubricating properties, a lantern ring is

FIGURE 18 Body-and-follower piston with snap rings

FIGURE 17 Body-and-follower piston

FIGURE 18 Body-and-follower piston with snap rings

Survival Treasure

Survival Treasure

This is a collection of 3 guides all about survival. Within this collection you find the following titles: Outdoor Survival Skills, Survival Basics and The Wilderness Survival Guide.

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