## Hydraulic Balancing Devices

If all the single-suction impellers of a multistage pump face the same direction, the total theoretical hydraulic axial thrust acting toward the suction end of the pump will be the sum of the individual impeller thrusts. The thrust magnitude will be approximately equal to the product of the net pump pressure and the annular unbalanced area. Actually, the axial thrust turns out to be about 70 to 80 percent of this theoretical value.

Some form of hydraulic balancing device must be used to balance this axial thrust and to reduce the pressure on the seal chamber adjacent to the last-stage impeller. This hydraulic balancing device may be a balancing drum, a balancing disk, or a combination of the two.

Balancing Drums The balancing drum is illustrated in Figure 61. The balancing chamber at the back of the last-stage impeller is separated from the pump interior by a drum that is usually keyed to the shaft and rotates with it. The drum is separated by a small radial clearance from the stationary portion of the balancing device, called the balancing-drum head, or balancing sleeve, which is fixed to the pump casing.

The balancing chamber is connected either to the pump suction or to the vessel from which the pump takes its suction. Thus, the back pressure in the balancing chamber is only slightly higher than the suction pressure, the difference between the two being equal to the friction losses between this chamber and the point of return. The leakage between

FIGURE 61 Balancing drum

the drum and the drum head is, of course, a function of the differential pressure across the drum and of the clearance area.

The forces acting on the balancing drum in Figure 61 are the following:

• Toward the discharge end: the discharge pressure multiplied by the front balancing area (area B) of the drum

• Toward the suction end: the back pressure in the balancing chamber multiplied by the back balancing area (area C) of the drum

The first force is greater than the second, thereby counterbalancing the axial thrust exerted upon the single-suction impellers. The drum diameter can be selected to balance the axial thrust completely or within 90 to 95 percent, depending on the desirability of carrying any thrust-bearing loads.

It has been assumed in the preceding simplified description that the pressure acting on the impeller walls is constant over their entire surface and that the axial thrust is equal to the product of the total net pressure generated and the unbalanced area. Actually, this pressure varies somewhat in the radial direction because of the centrifugal force exerted upon the liquid by the outer impeller shroud (refer to Figure 54). Furthermore, the pressures at two corresponding points on the opposite impeller faces (D and E in Figure 61) may not be equal because of a variation in clearance between the impeller wall and the casing section separating successive stages. Finally, a pressure distribution over the impeller wall surface may vary with head and capacity operating conditions.

This pressure distribution and design data can be determined quite accurately for any one fixed operating condition, and an effective balancing drum could be designed on the basis of the forces resulting from this pressure distribution. Unfortunately, varying head and capacity conditions change the pressure distribution, and as the area of the balancing drum is necessarily fixed, the equilibrium of the axial forces can be destroyed.

The objection to this is not primarily the amount of the thrust, but rather that the direction of the thrust cannot be predetermined because of the uncertainty about internal pressures. Still it is advisable to predetermine normal thrust direction, as this can influence external mechanical thrust-bearing design. Because 100 percent balance is unattainable in practice and because the slight but predictable unbalance can be carried on a thrust bearing, the balancing drum is often designed to balance only 90 to 95 percent of the total impeller thrust.

The balancing drum satisfactorily balances the axial thrust of single-suction impellers and reduces pressure on the discharge-side stuffing box. It lacks, however, the virtue of automatic compensation for any changes in axial thrust caused by varying impeller reaction characteristics. In effect, if the axial thrust and balancing drum forces become unequal, the rotating element will tend to move in the direction of the greater force. The thrust bearing must then prevent excessive movement of the rotating element. The balancing drum performs no restoring function until such time as the drum force again equals the axial thrust. This automatic compensation is the major feature that differentiates the balancing disk from the balancing drum.

Balancing Disks The operation of the simple balancing disk is illustrated in Figure 62. The disk is fixed to and rotates with the shaft. It is separated by a small axial clearance from the balancing disk head, or balancing sleeve, which is fixed to the casing. The leakage through this clearance flows into the balancing chamber and from there either to the pump suction or to the vessel from which the pump takes its suction. The back of the balancing disk is subject to the balancing chamber back pressure, whereas the disk face experiences a range of pressures. These vary from discharge pressure at its smallest diameter to back pressure at its periphery. The inner and outer disk diameters are chosen so that the difference between the total force acting on the disk face and that acting on its back will balance the impeller axial thrust.

If the axial thrust of the impellers should exceed the thrust acting on the disk during operation, the latter is moved toward the disk head, reducing the axial clearance between

the disk and the disk head. The amount of leakage through the clearance is reduced so that the friction losses in the leakage return line are also reduced, lowering the back pressure in the balancing chamber. This lowering of pressure automatically increases the pressure difference acting on the disk and moves it away from the disk head, increasing the clearance. Now the pressure builds up in the balancing chamber, and the disk is again moved toward the disk head until an equilibrium is reached.

To assure proper balancing in disk operation, the change in back pressure in the balancing chamber must be of an appreciable magnitude. Thus, with the balancing disk wide open with respect to the disk head, the back pressure must be substantially higher than the suction pressure to give a resultant force that restores the normal disk position. This can be accomplished by introducing a restricting orifice in the leakage return line that increases back pressure when leakage past the disk increases beyond normal. The disadvantage of this arrangement is that the pressure on the seal chamber is variable, a condition that may be injurious to the life of the seal and therefore should avoided.

Combination Balancing Disk and Drum For the reasons just described, the simple balancing disk is seldom used. The combination balancing disk and drum (see Figure 63) was developed to obviate the shortcomings of the disk while retaining the advantage of automatic compensation for axial thrust changes.

The rotating portion of this balancing device consists of a long cylindrical body that turns within a drum portion of the disk head. This rotating part incorporates a disk similar to the one previously described. In this design, radial clearance remains constant regardless of disk position, whereas the axial clearance varies with the pump rotor position. The following forces act on this device:

• Toward the discharge end: the sum of the discharge pressure multiplied by area A, plus the average intermediate pressure multiplied by area B

• Toward the suction end: the back pressure multiplied by area C

Whereas the position-restoring feature of the simple balancing disk required an undesirably wide variation of the back pressure, it is now possible to depend upon a variation of the intermediate pressure to achieve the same effect. Here is how it works: When the pump rotor moves toward the suction end (to the left in Figure 63) because of increased axial thrust, the axial clearance is reduced and pressure builds up in the intermediate

FIGURE 63 A combination balancing disk and drum

relief chamber, increasing the average value of the intermediate pressure acting on area B. In other words, with reduced leakage, the pressure drop across the radial clearance decreases, increasing the pressure drop across the axial clearance. The increase in intermediate pressure forces the balancing disk toward the discharge end until equilibrium is reached. Movement of the pump rotor toward the discharge end would have the opposite effect, increasing the axial clearance and the leakage and decreasing the intermediate pressure acting on area B.

Now numerous hydraulic balancing device modifications are in use. One typical design separates the drum portion of a combination device into two halves, one preceding and the second following the disk (see Figure 64). The virtue of this arrangement is a definite cushioning effect at the intermediate relief chamber, thus avoiding too positive a restoring action, which might result in the contacting and scoring of the disk faces.

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### Responses

• JENNIFER FARBER
What is hydraulic balancing disc?
2 years ago