## Hydraulic And Mechanical Pump Problems

Inadequate NPSH Net positive suction head available (NPSHA) is the static head plus atmospheric head minus lift loss, frictional loss, vapor pressure, and acceleration head available at the suction connection centerline.

Acceleration head can be the highest factor of NPSHA. In some cases, it is 10 times the total of all the other losses. Data from both the pump and the suction system are required

to determine acceleration head; its value cannot be calculated until these data have been established. Inadequate NPSH can cause cavitation, the rapid collapse of vapor bubbles, which can result in a variety of pump problems, including noise, vibration, loss of head and capacity, and severe erosion of the valves and surfaces in the adjacent inlet areas. To avoid cavitation of liquid in the pump or piping, the absolute liquid static pressure at pumping temperatures must always exceed the vapor pressure of the liquid. The pressure at the pump suction should include sufficient margin to allow for the presence of pulsations as well as pressure losses due to flow.

Positive Displacement Pump Pulsations The intermittent flow of a liquid through pump internal valves generates liquid pulsations at integral multiples of the pump operating speed. For example, a 120-rpm triplex pump generates pulsations at all multiples of pump speed (2 Hz, 4 Hz, and so on); however, the most significant components will usually be multiples of the number of plungers (6 Hz, 12 Hz, 18 Hz, and so on). Resultant pulsation pressures in the piping system are determined by the interaction of the generated pulsation spectrum from the pump and the acoustic length resonances of liquid in the piping. For variable-speed units, the discrete frequency components change in frequency as a function of operating speed and the measured amplitude of any pulsation harmonic can vary substantially with changes in the location of the measurement point relative to the pressure nodes and antinodes of the standing wave pattern.

Piping System Pulsation Response Because acoustic liquid resonances occur in piping systems of finite length, these resonances will selectively amplify some pulsation frequencies and attenuate others. Resonances of individual piping segments can be described from organ pipe acoustic theory. The resonant frequencies of standing pressure waves depend upon the velocity of sound in the liquid being pumped, pipe length, and end conditions. The equations for calculating these frequencies are shown in Figure 1. All of the integral multiples (N) of a resonance can occur, and it is desirable to mismatch the excitation frequencies from any acoustical resonances. A 2:1 diameter increase or greater would represent an open end for the smaller pipe. Closed valves, pumps, or a 2:1 diameter reduction represent closed ends. For example, a 2-in (51-mm) diameter pipe that connects radially into two 8-in (203-mm) diameter volumes would respond acoustically as an open-end pipe.

Complex piping system responses depend upon the termination impedances and interaction of acoustical resonances and cannot be handled with simplified equations. An elec-troacoustic analog1 or digital computer can be used for the more complex systems.

Velocity of Sound in Liquid Piping Systems The acoustic velocity of liquids can be determined by the following equation:

C1 = 8.615 for USCS units, 1.0 for SI units Ks = isentropic bulk modulus, lb/in2 (kPa) sp. gr. = specific gravity

In liquid piping systems, the acoustic velocity can be significantly affected by pipe wall flexibility. The acoustic velocity can be adjusted by the following equation:

^adjusted a

## Survival Treasure

This is a collection of 3 guides all about survival. Within this collection you find the following titles: Outdoor Survival Skills, Survival Basics and The Wilderness Survival Guide.

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